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Chambers, Ephraim, 1680 (ca.)-1740 / Cyclopædia, or, An universal dictionary of arts and sciences : containing the definitions of the terms, and accounts of the things signify'd thereby, in the several arts, both liberal and mechanical, and the several sciences, human and divine : the figures, kinds, properties, productions, preparations, and uses, of things natural and artificial : the rise, progress, and state of things ecclesiastical, civil, military, and commercial : with the several systems, sects, opinions, &c : among philosophers, divines, mathematicians, physicians, antiquaries, criticks, &c : the whole intended as a course of antient and modern learning
(1728)

Fennel - Fish,   pp. 21-41 PDF (20.0 MB)


Page 41


N~~~~              S-
S                   ^FIS                  (4
6e Aibulls Salmoni fimilis, the Guinnard.
7 Albul Hareagi formis, the Schelly.
8 Salmo, the Salmon.
g Salmulus, the Samlet, or Pranlin.
30 Salmo grifeuts, the Grly.
ij 91ratta Salmonata, the Salmon Trout.
Is rutta Lacufjris, the Scurf, or Bull Trout.
13 9rutta fluviatilis duum generum, the Trout.
4 Umbia minor Gefn. the Red Charr, or Welfh Tor-
goch.
35 Carpio lacus Benaci, the Guilt, or Guilt Charr.
A6 Eperlanus, feu Viole, the Smelt.
17 Golius Niger, the Rock-Filh, or Sea Gudgeon.
I8 Lumpus Anglorum, the Lump, or Sea Owl.
I9 Cataphra[us Schonfeldii, in the Weft of England, a
.Dog.
(8) Of the Non-fpinous Kind, with only one Fin on
the Back; there are,
I Haren7gus, the Herring.
2 Harengus minor, the Pilchard, called alfo Calchis.
S Eneraficholus, the Anchoris.
4 Alofa, feu Clupea, the Shad, or Mother of Herrings.
g Sardina, the Sprat, or Sparling; which is nothing elfe
but the Fetus of an Herring.
6 A4cus vulgaris, the Garr Filh, or Horn Fiih.
7 Sturio, the Sturgeon.
8 Lucius, the Pike, or Pickrel.
9 Cyprinus, the Carp.
to Cyprinus latus, the Bream, or Bruma.
ir funca, the Tench.
iz Orfus Germanorum, the Riedd, Oerve, or Nerfling.
I3 Capito, feu Cephalus, the Chub, or Chevin.
14 4Barbus, the Barbel.
i Leuci/cus, the Dace, or Dare.
i6 Rutilus, fet6 Rubellas, the Roach.
17 Alburnus, the Bleak, or Bley.
3I8 Gobius fluviatilis, the Gudgeon.
19 !Bobites fluviatilis barbatula, the Locke.
so Varias, flu Phoxinus levis, the Pink, or Minnow.
The laME twelve of thefe are called by us (Malacoflo-
mi) Leather-mouthed FiJbes; becaufe they have no
Teeth in their Jaws, but only deep down in their
Mouths.
(9) Of the Spinous Kind, with two Fins on their Back,
of which the foremoft is aculeare, we have,
I Lupus, the Bafe.
2 Mugil, the Mullet.
3 Gurcardos 5Pifcis, the Grey Garnard.
4 Hirundo Aidrevandi, the TubFilh.
5 CuculGIs Aidrovandi, the Red Gamard, or Rotchet.
6 Lyra prior Rondeletii, the Piper.
7 Mullus major, the Sur-Mullet.
8 Draco, five Araneus Plinii, the Spider.
s Frachurus, the Scud.
lo Perca Jluviatilis, the Perch.
xx Taber TPifcis, the Dorge.
(Io) Of the Aculeate Kind, with only one Fin on the
Back, whofe Radii are fome prickly, and fome
foft; there are,
I Aurata, the Gilt-Head, or Gilt-Poll,
X Pagrus, the Bream.
3 71ardus, velg. the Old Wife, or Wrafs.
4 VPerca fluviatilis minor, feu aurata, the RuIT.
Tifcis acildateus vulgaris, few Pungitius, Aberti, the
Common Prickle-Back, or Sharnlino. or Branifickle.
I         I -       1.   -  _      -
* aculeatus minor, the Leffier Prickle-Back.
Of the Cetaceous Kind, we reckon only
ta B'ritanica An'tiquorum, which feems now to be
e from our Seas; and we fearce know what kind
Pilh it was.
ta} vul. Rondeletii, the Whale, which is fome-
es Foid (tranded on our Coaffs, or rambles up our
ers.
4ios Antifuorum, the Dolphin, very rarely, but
etimes feen here.
Mta, the Porpufs, called by Schonfelk, the Nor-
v Dolphin.
with regard to Commerce, is diffinguiah'd into
kitced Green, and Rui
or Salt Fosy, is that which is falted and drved,
X Heat of theo Su; or by Fire. Such rnd-
sth.4T#4  &'ock-FZf   Ax   and   2 iZ k rd.
FIs
J )
Green FPsit is that lately falted, and which yet remains
moifi; as Green Cod, &c.
Pickled Fisi is that boil'd and fleep'd in a Pickle, made
of Salt, Vinegar, .e'c. as Salmon, Cod, Herring, Mackarel,
'Pilchard, ,schoy, and 0ifters.
Red Fisir, is Come frelh FSigh, broil'd on the Grid-iron,
then fried in Oil of Olives, and barrel'd up with Come pro-
per Liquor; as new Olive Oil, Vinegar, Salt, Pepper,
Cloves, and Laurel Leaves, or other Herbs. The bel Fili
thus prepar'd are Sturgeon and Tunny.
FISH, confider'd as a Food, makes a conliderable Article
in the Furniture of the Table; and the Breeding, Feeding,
Catching, Uec. thereof makes a peculiar Art of no fmall
Moment in the Oeconomy of a Gentleman's Houfe and
Garden.
To this relate the Ponds, Stews, 0c. described in their
proper Places. See POND, STEW, .C.'
Some General Rules and Obfervations on the fame Sub-
je&t, may not here be unacceptable.
tO. For the .Breeding of Fiji, the Quality of the Pond,
Water, bec. proper for this end, is Ccarce determinable by
any certain Symptom, or Rule: For Come very promifing
Ponds do not prove Serviceable that way. One of the beit
Indications of a fEreeding9 Pond, is when there is good Store
of Rulh, and Grazing about it, with gravelly Shoals; fuch
as Horfe-ponds ufually have: So that when a Water takes
thus to Breeding, with a few Milters and Spawners, two or
three of each, a whole County may be ilock'd in a Ihorr
Time.
Eels and Pearch are of very good Ufe, to keep down the
Stock of Fijb%; for they prey much upon the Spawn and
Fry of bred Fiji, and will probably defiroy the Superfluity
of them.
As for Pike, Pearch, Tench, Roach, Lec. they are ob-
ferv'd to breed in almost any Waters, and very numeroufly;
only Eels never breed in fanding Waters, that are without
Springs; and in fuch are neither found, nor inireafe, but
by putting in: Yet where Springs are, they are never wan-
ting, tho' not put in. And which is mofi 1irange of all, no
Perfon ever faw in an Eel the leafl Token of Propagation,
either by Milt, or Spawn; fo that whether they breed at
all, and how they are produc'd, are Queftions equally my-
fierious, and never yet refolved.
20. For the Method of Feeding Fijb, take the following
Remarks. x. In a Stew, thirty or forty Carps may be kept
from Oaober to March, without Feeding; and by fifh-
ing with Tramels, or Flews in March, or April, you may
take from your great Waters, to recruit the Stews: But
you muff not fai to feed all Summer, from March to Oc-
tober again, as conflantly as cooped Chickens are fed; and
'twill turn to as good an Account.
a. The Conflancy and Regularity of ferving the Fij%, con-
duces very much to their well eating and thriving.
3. Any fort of Grain boiled, is good to feed with, especially
Peafe and Malt, coarfe ground: The Grains after Brewing,
while frefh and fweet, are very proper- but one Bufhel of
Malt not brew'd, will go as far as two of Grains: Chippings
of Bread, and Orts of a Table fBeep'd in Tap-droppings of
firong Beer, or Ale, are excellent Food for Carps. Of thef.
the Quantity of two Quarts, to thirty Carps, every Day, is
fufficient: And fo fed Morning and Evening, is better
than once a Day only.
There is a fort of Food for Fib, that may be called ac-
cidental, and is no lefs improving than the bell that can
be provided5 and this is, when the Pools happen to re-
ceive the Walh of Commons, where many Sheet have Pa-
flure, the Water is enrich'd by ther Soil, and wUll feed a
much greater Number of Carps, than otherwifo it would
do: And farther, the Dung that 1alIs fiom Cattel handing
in Water in hot Weather, is alfo a very great Nourilhment<
to FSA.
The belt Food to raifePikes to an extraordinary Patne{f,
is Eels; and without them 'tis not to be done, but in a long
Time: Setting thefe afide, fmall Perches are the bell Meat.
Breams put into a Pike-pond, breed exceedingly, and are
fit to maintain Pikes; 'which will take care they do not en-
creafe over-much: The numerous, Fr of Roaches and
Rouds, which come from the greater Pools into the Pike-
Quarters, will likewife be good Diet, for them.
Pikes in all Streams, and Carps in hungry-fpring  Wa-
ters, being fed at certain Times, will come up, and take
their Meat almoft from your Hand.
The beft Feeding-place is toward the Mouth of the
Pond, at the Depth of about half a Yard; for by that
means the 'Dee' Will be kept clean and neat; the Meat
thrown into the *ater, without other Trouble, will be pick,4
p   bathe Ih, and nothing be loll: Yet there arc fe
Icesect.r giving them Food, efpecially Pefie; asa:re
Board let down with Meat on it.-
Wben Fit are fed in the larger Pools or
their Numbrs are great, Malt boited, or
the begl Food. Thus Carps may: 1 fed 3ai l     a
e      V0PW


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