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Chambers, Ephraim, 1680 (ca.)-1740 / Cyclopædia, or, An universal dictionary of arts and sciences : containing the definitions of the terms, and accounts of the things signify'd thereby, in the several arts, both liberal and mechanical, and the several sciences, human and divine : the figures, kinds, properties, productions, preparations, and uses, of things natural and artificial : the rise, progress, and state of things ecclesiastical, civil, military, and commercial : with the several systems, sects, opinions, &c : among philosophers, divines, mathematicians, physicians, antiquaries, criticks, &c : the whole intended as a course of antient and modern learning

Delivery - Diagram,   pp. 181-199 PDF (18.7 MB)

Page 182

t   , 1 ,  2  1
eaAca, all the iirds Would never have been delroy'd3 as
Mofes fays they were; fo long as they had Wings to bear
them to thofe Parts where the Flood did not reach. if
the Waters had only overflowed the Neighbourhood of
the Euphrates and Tigris, they could not be fifteeh iCu-
bits above the higheft Mountains ; There was no Rifing
to that Height, but they mud fpread themfelves, by
the Laws of Gravity, over the refi of the Earth:: Unlefs,
perhaps, they had been retain'd there by a Miracle ; And
in that Cafe, Mjsofes, no doubt, would have related the
Miracle, as he did that of the Waters of the Red-Sea1 and
the River 7ordan, which were fuflain'd in a Heap; to
ive Pafrage to the Ifraelites. Exod. XIy. zz. ar idof
fVi. i6. Add, that in Regions far remote from the Lsu-
phrates, and Tigris, viz. in Italy, France, S'rvitzerland,
Germany, Ergland, &c. there are frequently found in
Places, many fcores of Leagues from any Sea, and even in
the Tops of high Mountains, whole Trees funk deep un-
der Ground, as alfo Teeth, and Bones of Animals, Filhes
entire, Sea-Shells, Ears of Corn, bc. petrified; Which,
the befl Naturalifls are agreed, could never have come
there but by the Deluge.
II. The Deluge allowed Univerfal, the Philofophers
are follicitous to find Water to effed it.
Mofes brings it from two Funds:  'he Fouwtains of
the great Zieep were broken up, and the Windows of
Heaven were open'd~
Dr. SBurnet, in his T'ell'ris T'heoria Sacra, lhews,
that all the Waters in the Ocean were not near enough to
cover the Earth 15 Cubits above the Tops of the highefl
Mountains. According to his Computation, no lefs than
8 Oceans were required. Now, fuppofing the Sea, there-
fore, drain'd quite dry, and all the Clouds of the Atmo-
fphere diffolv'd into Rain, we fhould flill want much
the greatefi Part of the Water of a Deluge.
To get clear of this Embarrafs, many of our befi Natu-
ralifts, as Steno, Burnet, Woodward, Scheuchzer, &c.
adopt des Cartes's Syflem of the Formation of the Earth.
That Philofopher will have the primitive World to have
been perfedfly round and equal, without Mountains, or
Vales; And accounts- for its Formation on Mechanical
Principles, by fuppofing it at firfi in the Condition of a
thick turbid Fluid, replete with divers Heterogeneous
Matters, which fubfiding by flow Degrees, form'd them-
felves into different concentric Strata, or Beds, by the
Laws of Gravity: And thus, at length, left a dry, folid
Dr. Bzrnet improves on this Theory : He fuppofes
the primitive Earth to have been no more than an Orbi-
cular Crufi, invefling the Face of the Abyfs, or Deep,
which grew chinky, clave, burfl, and fell down into the
Water, and fo drown'd its Inhabitants.
The fame Theorifi adds, That by this Catafirophe,
the Globe of the Earth was not only lhook, and broke
in a thoufand Places, but that the Violence of the Shock
it then underwent Ihifted its Situation, fo that the Earth,
which before was placed directly under the Zodiac, be-
came thenceforth oblique to the fame.  Whence arofe
the Difference of Seafons, which the Antediluvian Earth
was not expofed to.
But how all this confifIs with the facred Text above
cited, which exprefsly mentions Mountains as the Stan-
dard of the Height of the Water ; Or, with that other
Palfage, Gen. VIII. 2X. where God, promifing not to
bring any more Delehges, but that every Thing lhould be
reflor'd on its ancient footing, fays, that Seed--iMe and
Harvey?, and Cold and Heat, and Summer and Winter,
and4Day and Night Jhall ceafe no. more 5 we do not fee.
Other Authors, fuppofing a fufficient Fund of Water
in the Abyfs, or Sea, are only concern'd for an Expedient
to bring it forth; Accordingly, fome have Recourfe to
a Shifting of the Earth's Centre, which, drawing after it
the Water out of its Channel, overwhelm'd the feveral
Parts of the Earth fucceffively.
The very learned Mr. Whifton, . in his New 2lheory of
the Earth, has a very ingenious Hypothefis, perfecly
new. He fhews from feveral remarkable Coincidences,
that a Comet defcending in the Plane of the Ecliptic to-
wards its Perihelion, pafs'd jufi before the Eartfi on the
firil Day of the Deluge; The Confequences whereof
would be, Firfi, That this Comet, when it came below
the Moon, would raife a prodigious, vafi, and frong Tide,
both in the fmall Seas, which, according to his K-ypothe-
fis, were in the Antidiluvian Earth; for he allows no great
Ocean there, as in ours ; and alfo in the Abyfs, which was
under the upper Cruft of the lRah. .And this Tide
would rife, and increafe all the Tiwrof the Approach of
the C6met towards theEarth; andMsuld be at its great-
efi Height when the Comet was at itsflA Diffance Afim
it. By the Force of which Tide, as alfo by the Attrac-
t on of the Comet, he judges, that the~&yfs muftc Put
on an tlitic Figure, whoSfeSurface by
larger than the former Spherical one t ' o
of the Earth, incumbent on the Abu mi
date li felf to the Figure,' *hich it could nTi
held Lold, and conjoyned together. He con(
fore, that it now of 1eacflity' be lextended
broke by the Violence  i  aid Tides, an
out of which, the includd Water iffuing;
Means of the Delu'ge': -This anfwering ti
fpeaks of the Fountains of the great
b'roke up.
Again, the fame Comet,' he'1'ews, in ,i*
wards the Sun, pafred Co oSfe by the Body
as to involve it in its Atmofphere, and Tai
derable Tinme; and'of Confejicee leftifa'
of its Vapours, both expandei andtondead
face; a great Part of wthice beingterwrs
the folar Heat, would be drawn up again in
fphere, and afterwards retuin agaifn in violent
this he takes tobe what Mofes intimates hy
of Heave -beitgtpen'd; and particularly 1
Days Rain. -For as tothe following Rain, wi
made the whole Time of Raiing Io50
Whifton attributes it to the Earth coming d
within the Atmofphere of the Comet, I as th
on its Return .fromn the Sun. Laffly, to ren
Orb of Waters again, he fuppofes 4 mighty'
arofe, which dried up fome, and forced th(
Abyfs again through the Clefts by which
Only a good :Quantity. remain'd in the A
great Ocean, now f~rU made, and in leffer Sea
To the Credit of thisTheory, it muf be e
it was atfirfi only propoflA Hypothetically:
Author-only fuppofed fuch a Comet, merel
account-well, and Philofophically for the P
the DZleluge  without any Affurance, tha:
was any Comet fo near the1 arth at that'
the Hypothefis pleas'd even under fuch C
But, upon further Confideratioi, he has finci
there atually was a Comet near the-Eartha
viz. the fame great Comet, which appear'd
The Author no longer, therefore,- looks upo
pothefts, but has republilh'd it in a particu
tituled, I'he Caufe of the Deluge demoanjr,
III. But the great Difficulty is yet behind.
ly Strata, or Layers of the Earth, with th
Remains of Fiflies, as their Teeth, Bones
both Marine, and Fluviatile, found in the Be
the moft folid Strata, as thofe of Flints, I
are not vet difpatch'd.  Thofe who adhere
tes's Syifem, as Steno, &c. take the finding of the Parts
of Terrefirial, and Aquatic Animals, Branches of Trees,
Leaves, T5c. in the Beds, or Strata of Stone, to be a cli-
rea Proof of the primitive Fluidity of the Earth.  But
then they are oblig'd to have Recourfe to a fecond For-
mation of Strata, much later than the firfd; by Reafon
at the Time of the firfl there was neither Plant nor Ani-
mal. Steno, therefore, holds for fecond Formations, oc-
cafion'd, at different Times by extraordinary Inundations,
Earth-quakes, Volcano's, bic. But !Bufrnet, Woodward,
Scheuchzer, &c. chufe rather to attribute a fecond gene-
ral Formation to the Deluge; without Excluding, how-
ever, the particular ones of Steno. But the greatObjedion
againfi this Syflem of Fluidity, is Mountainsi For the
whole Globe being liquid, whence lhould fuch Inequali-
ties arife ?  Mr. Scheuchzer, rather than part with a
Syflem, which looks fo promifing, gives into the Opinion
of thofe, who hold, that, after theßDeluge, God, to re-
mit the Waters into their fubterranean Refervoirs, broke,
.and difplaced, .with his own, Almighty Hand, a great
Numbe; of Strata, that were before horizontal, and rai-
fed them above' the Surface of the Earth; whence it is,
that the Strata in Mountains, tho' concentrical, are never
horizontal. See MOUNTAIN, g-C.
Dr. Wood'ward, taking the feversal Strata for theSedli-
ments of a Deluge; and confidering the Circumflances
of thofe Fifhes, Shells, and oither Exuvie, draws f&veral
Inferences, which very much illufirate the Effeds of the
'Deluge. As firfl, That thefe Marine Bodies, and other
'Spoils of frell Water Filles, .were born forth of the Sea,
b'y the univerfal.!Deluge i and: onRetrnr of the Water
back again, were left behind at Land.  Secondly, That
while the Flood cover'd the Globe, all the folidMatters,
as Stones, Metals, Minerals, and Foills, were totally dif-
.folved, and the Cohefion of their Corpufcle8 deftoyedi
and that tliefe Corpucles, owiththe of the 1X. foli
'dies, as Earth, Ffeli of Animals, and ales, were
'fuiain'dpro6iifcuoufly in the Water, and made onecom-
znon M4s. a Thirdly, That all the Mafs thus fiain'd,
'was atA Tngth precipitated to the Bottom; and that, ac- Uie Lavs of Gravity, the h ayiefl: Settling

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