University of Wisconsin Digital Collections
Link to University of Wisconsin Digital Collections
Link to University of Wisconsin Digital Collections
History of Science and Technology

Page View

Chambers, Ephraim, 1680 (ca.)-1740 / Cyclopædia, or, An universal dictionary of arts and sciences : containing the definitions of the terms, and accounts of the things signify'd thereby, in the several arts, both liberal and mechanical, and the several sciences, human and divine : the figures, kinds, properties, productions, preparations, and uses, of things natural and artificial : the rise, progress, and state of things ecclesiastical, civil, military, and commercial : with the several systems, sects, opinions, &c : among philosophers, divines, mathematicians, physicians, antiquaries, criticks, &c : the whole intended as a course of antient and modern learning

Chose - Clause,   pp. 213-232 PDF (19.5 MB)

Page 214

( 214 )
The Name C'hriflian was firft given at Antiocb, to fuch
As believ'd in Chrifi, as we read in the Atgs: Till that
time they were call'd Difciples.
CHRISTIANS of St. John, a SeS of Chriftians, very
numerous in Balfara and the neighbouring Towns.
They formerly inhabited along the Rliver fjorda, where
St. yohn baptiz.'d; and 'twas thence they had their Name.
But after the Mahometanas became Mailers of Pale~fine,
they retir'd into Mefopotamia and Chaldea.
They hold an Anniverfary Feafi of five Days; during
which, they all go to their Bifhops, who baptize them
with the Baptifm of St. L7obe: Their Baptifm is alfo per-
form'd in Rivers, and that only on Sundays.
They have no Notion of the third Perfon in the Tri-
nity; nor have they any Canonical Books, but abundance
full of Charms, &c. Their Bifhopricks defcend by Inhe-
ritance, as our Eflates do; tho they have the Ceremony
of an Elclion.
CHRISTIANS of S. Thomas, or San Thomas, a Sect of
antient Chriftians, found in the Eaji-Indies ; when the Eu-
ropeans touch'd at the Port of Calecut; who pretend to be
defcended from thofe S. lJ'omas converted in the Indies:
whence the Name.
The Natives call 'em, by way of Contempt, Nazare-
ans; their more honourable Appellation is Mappuley.
Some learned Men in Europe fay, 'twas not St. Thomas
the Apoftle that converted that Country, but another St.
'1homas: others fay, 'twas a NeJiorian Merchant, call'd
'thomas. 'Tis certain they are Neaorians, and have been
fo a long time; infomuch, that Chriflians of St. Vtomas, is
now efteem'd by many a Name of a Sect.
They have a Patriarch, who refides at Mofoul.
The Pope has made feveral Attempts to reduce 'em un-
der his Obedience, but to no purpofe.
CHRISTMAS, the Feafi of the Nativity of Jefus Chrifi.
It appears from S. Chryfoftom, that in the primitive
Times, Chriftmas and Epiphany were celebrated as one
and the fame Feafi: That Father obferves, it was but a
little while that Chri mas had been celebrated at Antioch
on the 2 5th of Dlecember, as a diflin& Feaft; and that the
Ufe thereof came from the Weff. He adds, that the Ar-
menians made but one Feall of them, as low as the XIIth
Century. See EPIPIHANY.
CHRISTOLYTES, a Seif of Hereticks mention'd by
lDamafcenus; fo call'd, becaufe they deflroy'd ChriJi:
maintaining, that he defcended into Hell, Body and Soul;
and that he left both there i afcending to Heaven with his
Divinity alone.
The Word comes from the Greek Xrerar, and Au@, I re-
CHROMA, in Rhetoric, a Colour, or fair Pretence. See
The Word is Greek XpwU, which literally denotes Colour.
CHROMATIC, in the antient Mufick, the fecond of
the Genera, or Kinds, into which the Confonant Intervals
were Subdivided into their concinnous Parts. See GENUS.
The other two Kinds were, the Enharmonic, and the
The Chromatic abounds in Semitones : It had its Name,
either by reafon the Greeks mark'd it with the Charader
of Colour, which they call Xenn ; or, as P. Parran fays,
becaufe the Chromatic Kind is a Medium between the
other two, as Colour is between black and white: or be-
caufe the Chromatic Kind varies and embellifhes the Dia-
tonic Kind, by its Semitones; which have the fame Effedt
in Mufick, with the Variety of Colours in Painting.
AriJZoxenus divides the Chromatic Genus into threeSpe-
cies ; the Afolle, Hemiolion, and f/onicum. Ptolemy into
Molle or Antiquum, and Intenfum. See SPECIES.
Thefe Species were alfo cali'd Chroai, or Colours of the
Genera : the Molle exprefres a Progreffion by fmall Inter-
vals, the Intenflim by greater.
The Chromatic and Enharmonic Kinds, only contain
the fmallefl of the Diatonic Degrees; fo as they have the
fame proportion to the Diatonic, as Frations have to In-
IBetius, and after him Zarli,, attribute the Invention
of the Chromatic Genus to Iimotbeits a Milef/an, in the
Time of Alexander the Great. The Spartans banifh'd
it their City, by reafon of its foftnefs.
Mr. Malcolm obferves, that we are at a lofs for what ufe
the Antients could make of thefe Divifions, and Subdivi-
fions into Genera and Spccies. All acknowledg'd the fDia-
tonic to be the true Melody; the others feem only humorous
Irregularities, calculated to pleafe the Fancy by their novelty
and oddnefs ; and were befides fo very difficulty that few, if
any, are faid to have ever pradtis'd them accurately. See
CHROMATIC is us'd, in Painting, for-the Colouring; which
makes the third Part of the Art of Painting. See COLOVR-
CHRONIC, CHRONICAL, in Medicine, is
to a flow, or inveterate Difeafe, which lafis a lonj
as the Gout, 1&'morrhoids, Fiftula, fLDrop, Afihi
Cbromic Difeafes fland in oppofition to acute I
which are fpeedy, and hafilen to a Crifis; as Fevers,
Pox, &c. See ACUTE.
LC/ ronic Diieales are ulually owing either to tome nat
Defec in the Conflitution; or to an irregular manne
living.  The Word comes from the Greek x        1iv, -Th
Moll of the Chronical Difeafes, iays Dr. Cheyne,
Intirmities ot old Age, and the Ihort Feriods ot the Live
of Engijhmen, are owing to Repletion : T1'his is evi
hence, that Evacuation or one kind or another, is nine
Parts in ten of their Remedy. See REPLETION, and EvA-
The Sources of Chronical Diflempers, fays the fame Au.
thor, are, I. Vifcidity in the Juices, or the overlargenef,
of their conflituent Particles ; which not being fufficiently
broken by the concoaive Powers, flop, or retard the Cir-
culation. Or, 2. Too great abundance of fharp acrimoni-
ous Salts; whereby the Juices themielves are render'd fo
corrofive, as to burit or wear out the Solids. Or, 3. A Re-
laxation, or want of a due Force and Springinefs of the So-
lids themselves.
An Excefs in the Quantity of our Meat and Drink begets
the firfe; the bad Condition of the fame Foods the fecond;
and both together, with want of due Exercife, the third.
CHRONICLE, CHRONICON, a Hiflory digefled in
order of Time; tho the Term is feldom us'd but for old
Hiflories, as Iollihv/ed's Chronicle, Sto'z's C6'ronicle, &c.
CHRONOGRAM, a kind of Verfe, the figurative, or
numeral Letters thereof, being join'd together, make up
the Year of our Lord, Cc.
The Word is compos'd of Xvs-, Mime, and >fra,
CHRONOLOGY, the Art of measuring and diflin-
guifhing Time; or the Doftrine of Epochas, Sc. See
Sturmius divides Chronology into five diflin&l Branches,
viz. Metaphyfical, Phyfical, Political, Hiflorical, and Ec-
clefiaflical; according to the various Relations, or Habi-
tudes wherein Time is confider'd i viz. as in it felf, as con-
nefed and fubjeaed to the Affeaions, States, and Alte-
rations of natural Things; as accommodated to Civil Ufes;
i as match'd with Events that pars in the World; and par-
ticularly, as it relates to the Celebration of Eafler. See
There is more difficulty in Chronolcgy than every one is
aware of: It requires not only the Knowledge of Alerono-
my and Geography, and consequently that of Arithmetic,
Geometry, and Trigonometry, both plain and Spherical;
1ut alfo a world of Application to the antient Monuments.
Xts ufe is very great: 'tis call'd one of the Eyes of Hifuo-
ry; and ferves good Purpofes in Theology.
The Word is compounded of the Greek        t -ime,
and Axo2y, Difcourfe-
The more eminent Writers on Chromcla y, among the
Antients, are .7ulius Africanus in the Illd Century; D10-
ny/?is Exignus, Eflfebius, and Cyril.
Among the Moderns, Bede, Fnccius, Mercator, Lili-
us, Clavius, Scaliger, Vieta, Petavius, Ce/]ini, Mufller,
Calviflus, Hardouin, Capellus, Uiher, Marjham, Helvicus,
Stranchius, I Voy ius, and .Beveridge.
CHRONOMETER, a general Name for any Inflru-
ment us'd in the measuring of Time: In this Scnfe, Clocks,
Watches, Dials, Lc. are Chronometers.
Tho there are fome Infiruments peculiarly call'd by the
Name Chronometer; particularly one defcrib'd by M. Saa-
veur, in his Principles of Acouflices.
The Word is compos'd of Xe9P-, 21ime, and wtwi', men-
jura, Meafure.
CHRYSALIS, a Term us'd by the modern Writers of
Natural HiProry of Infeds, in the fame Senfe with Nym-
pha. See NyMPwi.
The Word feems to imply a peculiar yellow, or golden
Colour, ufual in the Nympba ; from the Greek x~eva-, Gold:
but this is purely accidental, and is not found in all Nymphe.
Some confine the Word to the Nympha of Butterflies
and Moths.
CHRYSARGYRUM, a Tribute formerly levy'd on
Courtefans, and other Perfons of evil Life.
Zozimus fays, that Confantine firi fet it on foot - tho
there appear fome Traces of it in the Life of Caligui4 by
Suetonius; and that of Alexander by Lamspridius. Eva-
grinus fays, Conflantine found it eflablilh'd, and had fome
Thoughts of abolifhing it.  4
It was paid every four Years : Some fay, all petty Tra-
ders were liable to it. It was abolifh'd by Xnaflafais.  -

Go up to Top of Page