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Chambers, Ephraim, 1680 (ca.)-1740 / Cyclopædia, or, An universal dictionary of arts and sciences : containing the definitions of the terms, and accounts of the things signify'd thereby, in the several arts, both liberal and mechanical, and the several sciences, human and divine : the figures, kinds, properties, productions, preparations, and uses, of things natural and artificial : the rise, progress, and state of things ecclesiastical, civil, military, and commercial : with the several systems, sects, opinions, &c : among philosophers, divines, mathematicians, physicians, antiquaries, criticks, &c : the whole intended as a course of antient and modern learning
(1728)

Channel - Chorus,   pp. 193-212 PDF (19.1 MB)


Page 212


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Acrimony is confiderable, it fometimes gives rife to unnatural
Erecions, or theSymptom call'da Priapifm. See  PREIAPISM.
If the Chordee be violent, or does not decreafe proportio-
nally to the other Symptoms in Gonorrhmas, an Emetic of
Turpeth Mineral is ufually given with fuccefsl it caufing
a Revulfion from the Part. See VENEREAL fifeafe.
CHORREA Sandi Viti, in Medicine, a Diflemper which
fome Authors reckon as an hytlerical Cafe; and others a
Species of a Furor Uterinus.
It is fuppos'd to proceed from a Turgency and Reple-
tion of hot Juices, eJpecially in the Uterine Vefl~ls, which
raifes violent Motions; and that only Females are afdered
by it: But Dr. Sydenham more properly obferves it to be
an universal Convulfion, which fometimes continues feveral
Weeks, nay Months, without intermiflion.
Thofe aflRe&ed with this Difeafe, are continually in firange
Motions with their Head, Legs, and Arms 5 fo that they
are unfit to f-ed thernfelves. It differs from other Convul-
fions, in that the Motions are not painful, nor any of the
Extremities or Parts forcibly contraded, or extended for
any time. Boys and Girls are moll fubjedt to this Difeafe,
and that from ten Years of Age to Puberty ; tho the latter
oftner than the former.
It fornetimes precedes the firfi Eruption of the Menfes;
in which Cafe, proper Cathartics, with Calomel and De-
obfiruents, are generally us'd ; otherwise, Evacuations and
Antiepileptics, as in other nervous Dif{empers.
It takes the Name of Cborea Sanli Viti, or Saint Ti-
tus's Dance, from the Chapel of S. Vitus ; becaufe it was
fuppos'd to feize Perfons about May, which was the Time
of the Year they vifited that Chapel, and to make them
leap and dance about in a firange manner.
CHOREPISCOPUS, an Epifcopal Officer in the antient
Church, about whofe Fundion the Learned are extremely
divided. See BISHOP.
M. de la Roquie thinks, that the Chorepifcopi were the
Country Pifhops, and had the fame Authority in Villages,
that the Bifhops had in Cities ; but that, by degrees, as
the Church flourifh'd, the Country Bifhops grew too proud
for the Country Life ; and imagin'd the Epifcopal Honour
debas'd, and render'd contemptible in a Rural Retreat.
Accordingly, the Sardik Council prohibited the Confecra-
tion of Bifhops in the Country, or in little Towns; that
the Epifcopal Charaaer might always be fuflain'd by the
Splendor of great Cities.
M. du .Bois adds, that tho the Chorepifcopi exercis'd
mofd of the Epifcopal Funaions in Country Towns, Uc. yet
they were not ordain'd like Bifhops, nor veiled with their
whole Authority, but were only a ilep above mere Priefls.
M. le Maitre is of Opinion, that the Office of a Chorepif-
copus, which is that now difcharg'd by the Rural Deans,
was to overlook, under the Biflhops, thofe Parifles that
were at a diflance from the See in the Country. He adds,
they were abolifl'd. by reafon they ufurp'd the Authority
of the Bifhops. See RuRAL Lbean.
Others, again, fay, the Chorepifcopi were properly what
we now call Bifhops in partibus; to whom, in quality of
Suffragans, were committed the Adminifiration of Diocef-
fes, during the Bifhop's abfence. See SUFFRAGAN.
Others rather think, the Inftitution of Chorepifcopi gave
occafion to that of the Epifcopi in partibus; which lafi,
however, have Privileges the others had not.
Lafily, others take the Chorepiftopi to be no more than
Prief{s, veiled by the Bifhops with moPi of their Authority
in Country Places.
The Council of Antioch, held in 342, appoints, ' That
C thofie in Burghs and Villages, call'd Chorepifcopi, know
'  the Bounds prefcrib'd them:  They may ordain Readers,
' Subdeacons, and Exorcifis, but not Priefts or Deacons,
without the Bifhop whereon they depend. The Chorepif-
coplus Ihall be ordain'd by the Bifhop of the City.
Pope Leo, in 936, fays,  the Chorepifcopi  mayn't ordain
Priels, or confecrate Churches:  yet Pope Nicholas, in a
Letter to Raoul, in the IXth Century, declares that the
Chorepifcopi fhall have the Epifcopal Funaions; and that
the Ordinations of Priefis and Deacons perform'd by them
are valid.
The firfi tine we read of Chorepifcopi in the Eafi, is in
the Beginning of the IVth Century ;' and in the Weft, about
the Year 439. They ceas'd, both in the Eafi and WePi,
in the Xth Century.
'The Word comes from the Greek X@ejeq, a Region, or lit-
tle Country, and E-xiaxr , !Jiiop.
CuoREPIscopus is alfo the Name of a Dignity Flil fub-
fifling in fom e Cathedrals, particularly in Germany; fignify-
ing the fame with Chori Ep ifcopus, or Bifhop of the Choir.
In the Church of Cologne, &c. the firis Chantor is call'd
Ciocptifcopr's.
The Word, in this Senfe, does not come from Se o, but
Xo?&,s Choir, &c.
CHOREUS, CHORJEUS, a Foot in the Latin Poetry,
more commonly call'd l]rocl-.eus. See TAociiints.
C H O
CHORIAMBUS, in the Latin Poetry, a Foot
pounded of a Chorcfus, or lrrocheus; and an 1ambul
It confides of four Syllables; of which the firft ar
are long, the middle ones lhort.
CHORION, the exterior Membrane that invel
Fetus in the Womb. See FOETTS.
'Tis very thick and fprong ; on the infide, whereI
another Membrane, call'd 4mnios, very fmooth
rough and uneven without fide i interfpers'd with a
number of Veal{es, and faften'd to the Matrix, or N
by means of the Placenta, which adheres very cl1
4t .PP..r PrA t*rA
This Membrane is found in aH Animals.
The Word comes from the Greek x~ofsv, capere, to con..  I
tain.
The Chorion, with the A4mnios and Placenta, make what
we call the Secundine, or After-Birth. See SECUNDINE.
CHORIST, or CHORISTER, a Chantor, or Singer in
the Choir. See CHOIR.
CHOROBATES, a kind of Level us'd among the An-
tients; compos'd of a double Square, made in form of a
defcrib'd by Vitruvius, Lib. viii. See LEVEL.       I
The Word comes from the Greek ;e     a', to over-run
a Country.
CHOROGRAPHY, the Art of making a Map, or De-
fcription of fome Country, or Province.
Cborography is diffinguifh'd from  Geography, as the  I
Defcription of a particular Country is from that of the
whole Earth. See GEOGRAPHY.
From  7iopography it is diffinguifh'd, as the Defcription
of the fame Country, is from that of a fingle Place in it.
The Word comes from the'Greek Xweef, Region.
CHOROIDES, or CHOROEIDES, in Anatomy, a
Term apply'd to feveral Parts of the Body i bearing tome
refemblance to the Chorion.
The Word is form'd from the oreek xofiov, Ch7orion, and-
Jiohe, to refemuble; or cJs, Image, Likenefs.
Thus, Choroides is us'd for the inner Membrane that im-
mediately invefis the Brain; fo called as being intermingled
with a great Number of Blood-Veffels, like the Chorion 5
but more ufually call'd the Pia Mater, or Meninx tennis.
See MENINX, and MATER.
Plexus, or Lacis CHOROIDES, is a Knot of Veins and
Arteries in the fore Ventricles of the Brain, wove out of the
Branches of the Carotid. See PLEXUS, and BRAIN.
Choroides is alfo apply'd to the inner and poflerior Tunic
of the Eye, contiguous to the Sclerotica. See EYE.
It is foft, thin, and black; and its inner, or concave Sur-
face, very fmooth and polite. It has its Name from its be-
ing interfpers'd with Vefrels.
To the Choroides is fix'd the Uvea. See UVEA.
M. Mariotre maintains, that Vifion is perform'd rather
in the Cl-oroides than the Retina: in which he agrees with,
!Bar. florinits, and is feconded by M. Mery; but moil other'
Authors are of a different Sentiment. See VISION, RE-
TINA, FC.                                         . C
Next under the Choroides is the Retina. Ruyfch, in-
deed, fays, he has found another Tunic between the Cho-
roides and Retina; and denominates it from himfelf, the
T'unica Ruyfchiana. He adds, that it grows fo firmly to
the Choroides, that 'tis overlook'd in the common Diflebaions.
But Verheyen, tho he found the Chorcides of a Bird di-
vifible into two Membranes, could never feparate thofe of
the human Eyes; and therefore thinks they needed not
any new Name.
The Choroides is black in Men; in Lions, Camels, Bears,
Sheep, Cattle, Dogs, Cats, and moft  Fiffies, of a fhining  1
Colour, like the Brilliant of Silver, or the Luflre of Ori- 1
ental Pearl; and makes what Naturalifis call the lapis, or
Colour of the Eye. See TAPIS.
CHORUS, in Dramatic Poetry, one, or more Perfons,
prefent on the Stage during the Reprefentation, and fup-
pos'd to be By-flanders thereto, without any particular
Share or Intereit in the Aa1ion. See DRAMA.      .
Tragedy in its Origin, M. fDacier obferves, was no more
than a fingle Chorxs, who trod the Stage alone, and with-
out any other Actors  finging  Dithrambics, or Hymns in
honour of !Racchu~s.
 lhefpis, to relieve the Chorus, added an A61or, who rc-
hears'd the Adventures of fome of their Heroes. fA.frc-
lus, finding a fingle Perfon too dry an Entertainment, adided
a fecond; and at the fame titme reduc'd the finging of the
Chorus, to make more room for the Recitation.
E  very thing introduc'd between the four Songs of the
Ghorus, they call'd by the Term EpiJ de;  and thofe four
Songs wnade the four Intervals, or Afs o f the Piece. See
EPISOD E, ACT,   c
But when once Tragedy began to be form'd, thofe Recim
tatives, or Epifodes, which  at firfi were only intended as i
accefrory Parts, to give the Chorus a breathing Time, be-T
came now the principal Part of the Tragedy:  And where-
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