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Chambers, Ephraim, 1680 (ca.)-1740 / Cyclopædia, or, An universal dictionary of arts and sciences : containing the definitions of the terms, and accounts of the things signify'd thereby, in the several arts, both liberal and mechanical, and the several sciences, human and divine : the figures, kinds, properties, productions, preparations, and uses, of things natural and artificial : the rise, progress, and state of things ecclesiastical, civil, military, and commercial : with the several systems, sects, opinions, &c : among philosophers, divines, mathematicians, physicians, antiquaries, criticks, &c : the whole intended as a course of antient and modern learning

C - Capillary,   pp. 137-152 PDF (20.2 MB)

Page 138

bala in any fuch Senfe, Ibut ever with the utmoll Refpeft
and Veneration.  'Tis not, however, the Magic of the
yews alone which we call Cabbala, but the Word is alfo
us'd for any kind of Magic: in which Senfe it is, that the
Abbe de Villars takes it, in his Comte de Gabalis; where
he expolfes the ridiculous Secrets of the Sacred Cabbala, as
the Cabalifis call it. Thefe fuppofe there are elementary
People, under the Names of Sylphs, Gnomes, Salaman-
ders, &c. and hold, that this Science introduces People in-
to the Santi uary of Nature. They pretend, the Hebre-xs
knew thefe aerial Subilances ; that they borrow'd their
Cabaliflic Knowledge from the Egyptians; and have not
yet forgot the Art of converting with the Inhabitants of the
Air. See SYMBOL.
CABBALLA, or CABBAI.LISTS, is alfo us'd to exprefs that
Sea among the Years, which follows and praaifes the Cab-
balla; or interpret Scripture according to the Art of Cab-
bal/a, taken in the fecond Senfe above laid down. The
.7e--ws are divided into two general Sects; the Karaites,
who refufe to receive either Tradition, or the Thalmud, or
any thing but the pure Text of Scripture. See CARAITES.
And the Rabbinills or lhaliudifis; who, befide this, re-
ceive the Traditions, and follow the 7Ibalmud ; fee THAL-
mlD). And thefe latter are again divided into two other
Seds; pure Rabbinifis, who explain the Scripture in its
natural Senfe, by Grammar, Hiflory, and Tradition; and
'Cabbalifts, who to difcover hidden myflical Senfes, which
they fuppofe God to have couch'd therein, make ufe of the
Cabbala, and the myflical Rules and Methods abovemen-
tion'd. There are Vifionaries among the 5e-svs, who be-
lieve that Jefus Chrifl wrought his Miracles by virtue of
the Myfleries of the Cabbala. Some learned Men are of
Opinion, that Pythagoras and Plato learn'd the Cabbaliftic
Art of the .7ews in Egypt ; and fancy they fee evident
Footileps thereof in their Philofophy : Others, on the
contrary, fay, it was the Philofophy of Pythagoras and
Plato, that firfl furnifh'd the with the Cabbala.
Be this as it will, 'tis certain that in the firil Ages of the
Church, mofl of the Hereticks gave into the vain Notions
of the Cabbala: Particularly the Gnoftics, Valentinians,
and SBafilidians. Hence arofe the AB9PAA, and the mul-
titude of Talifmans, wherewith the-Cabinets of the Vir-
tuofi are flockd. See TALISMAN, SC.
The Word Cabballa is not only apply'd to the whole Art;
but alfo to each Operation perform's according to the Rules
of that Art. R. _7ac. ben Afcher, firnam'd Baal Hatturim,
has compil'd moil of the Cabbala's invented on the Books
of Mofes before his Time.
CABINET, the moit retir'd Place in the finefd Apart-
ment of a Building; fet apart for Writing, Studying, or
preferving any thing very precious. A compleat Apartment
confifis of an Hall, Antichamber, Chamber, and Cabinet;
with a Gallery on one fide. See APARTMENT.. Hence a
Cabinet of Paintings, of Curiofities, Mofaic Cabinet, Cabi-
net of a Garden, &c.
CABINS, or CABANES, in a Ship, are little Lodges
and Apartments for the Pilots and other Officers of the
Ship to lie. in; very narrow, and in form of Armories or
Preles; us'd in feveral Parts of the Ship, particularly the
Poop and the Sides. The Word comes from the Italian
Capanna, a little Straw Hut; and that from the Greek
xemaYvu, a Stall or Manger.
CABIRIA, or CABBIRES, were Feafis held by the an-
tient Greeks of Lemnos and 7hbebes, in honour of fome Sa-
mothracian Deities, call'd Cabires. Thefe Gods, accor-
ding to the Scholiafi of Apollonius, were four; Axieras,
who was Ceres; Axiocerfa, Proferpine 5 Axiocerfus, Plu-
to ; and Cafinil/us, Mercury: The Feafi was very antient,
and prior even to the Time of L7uiter 5 who is faid to
have reftor'd it : It was held by Night. Children above
a certain Age were here consecrated; which Confecration
was fuppos'd to be a Prefervative againtd all Dangers of the
Sea, T'c. The Ceremony of Confecration, confifted in
placing the initiated Youth on a Throne, the Priefts dan-
cing round him: The Badge of the Initiated was a Gir-
dle or Scarf. When a Peron had committed any Murder,
the Cabiria gave him an Afylum. Meuriinus is very parti-
cular in the Proof of each of thefe ]Points.
CABLE, a thick long Rope, ordinarily of Hemp,
ferving to hold Ships firm at Anchor, to tow Vefsels in
large Rivers, &c. The Term is Sometimes alfo apply'd
to the Cordage us'd to raife mafy Loads, by me~tns of
Cranes, Wheels, and other like Engines: Tho, in- {iri&-
nefs, Cable is not apply'd to Ropes of lefs than three Inches
Circumference. See CORDAGE, ROPE, Lec.
Every Cable, of whatever Thicknefs it be, is compos'd
of three Haqwer;si each Hawfer of three Strands ; each
Strand of three lliifift-S each Twilt of a certain Number
of Cab'erns, or Threads of Rope-Yarn, more or lefs, as
the Cable is to be thicker or fmaller.
To make a Cable .- after forming the Strands, as in the
Article of ROPEMARING, they ufe Staves; which they firfi
pafs between the Strands whereof the Hawfers are com-
C * A C
f A, C
pI;d; and afterwards between the Hawikj
Cable is compos'd- that the one iand the o
the better, and be intertwifted the more regi
And to prevent any entangling, a Weight i
End of each Hawfer and Strand. The Cabi
as much as needs, is untwitled again three
that the reft may the better retain its State.
The number of Threads each kind of Cab,
pos'd of, is ever proportioned to its Length a
and 'tis by this Number of Threads, that i
Value are afcertain'd. A Cable of 3 Inches
or i Inch Diameter, confifts of 48 ordinary
weighs I92; Pounds; one of Io Inches Circ
485 Threads, and weighs 1940  Pounds ;
Inches, ot 1943 'Ireads, and weighs 7772 Pounds.
The Seamen fay, T'he Cable is well laid, when it is
well wrought, or made. Serve the Cable, or plat the Cable,
i. e. bind it about with Ropes, Clouts, Lec. to keep it from
galling in the Hawfe. flfofplice a Cable, is to make two
Pieces faft together, by working the feveral Strands of the
Rope one into another. i'o coil the Cable, is to roll it up
round in a Ring ; of' which, the feveral Rolls one upon
another are call'd Cable fire.  They fay, Pay more Cable,
that is, let it more out from the Ship; that the Boat which
carries the Anchor may the more eafily drop it into the
Sea: And fometimes they fay, Pay cheap the Cable, that
is, put or hand it out apace. In the fame Senfe they fay
alfo, Veer more Cable; that is, let more out. When two
Cables are fplic'd together, it is call'd a Sbott of a Cable.
Every Merchant Vefl~el, how fmall foever, has three Ca-
bles, viz, the Main or Mafler 'Cable, which is that of the
chief Anchor; the Common Cable, and the fmall one. The
ordinary Length of thefe Cables, is I iO or r zo Fathoms,
or Braces. Hence, at Sea,
CABLE, or CABLE'S-LENGTH, is alfo us'd for a Meafure
of i2o Fathom. See FATHOM.
The Word Cable, comes from the Hebrew Chebel, Cord.
Du Cange derives it from the Arabic, Habl, Cord, or ha-
bala, vincire.  Mlenage, from Capulum, or Cabulum; and
that from the Greek umA@&, or the Latin, Camellus.
CABLED-FLUTES, in Architeaure, fuch Flutes as are
fill'd up with Pieces in form of Cables. See FLUTING.
CABLED, in Heraldry, is when a Crofs is form'd or co-
ver'd with Ropes, or twifled Cables. See CROSS.
CABOSSED, or CABOCHED, in Heraldry, a term
originally Spanijb; us'd where the Head of a Beaft is cut
oEF behind the Ears, by a Sedion parallel to the Face; or
by a perpendicular Seation: in contra-diflinaion to Coup-
ing; which is done by a horizontal Line; befides that,
'tis farther from the Ears than Cabofing. See COUPING.
CACAO, or COCOA, in Natural Hitiory and Commerce,a
kind of Nut, about the Size of a moderate Almond; the Seed
or Fruit of a Tree of the fame Name, growing in leveral
Parts of the Weft-Indies; chiefly in the Provinces of Gua-
timala and Nicaragua, and the Antilles Iflands. The na-
tive Mexicans call the Cacao Tree, Cucubua guahuitl ; and
the Spaniards, Cacaotal. It refembles our Cherry-Tree;,
but is fo very delicate, and the Soil it grows in fo hot, that
to guard it from the Sun, they always plant it in the Shade
of another Tree, call'd Mother of Cocoa.  The Fruit is
enclos'd in a kind of Pod, of the Size and Figure of a Cu-
cumber - except that it begins and ends in a Point. With-
in the Pod, which is half a Finger thick, is form'd a Tif-
fue of white Fibres, very fucculent, a little acid, and pro-
per to appeafe Thirf}. In the middle of thefe Fibres are
contain'd 1O, Sometimes t2, and fometimes more, as far
as forty, Grains or Seeds, of a Violet Colour, and dry as
Acorns. Each Grain, which is cover'd with a little Bark
or Rind, when firipp'd thereof, feparates into five or fix un.
equal Pieces, in the middle whereof is aKernel or Pirpin,
having a tender Bud, very difficult to preferve.   his
Seed, with the Addition of Vanille, and fome other Ingre-
dients, the Spaniards, and, after their Example, the reft
of Europe, prepare a Kind of Conferve, or Cake, which,
diluted in hot Water, makes that delicious, wholefom
Drink, call'd Chocolate: For the Preparation, &c. where-
of, fee CHOCOLAYE.
This precious Almond, the Spaniards make fo confidera-
ble a Trade of; that there are fome make 5000 1. Sterling,
per Annum, from a fingle Garden of Cacoa's. There are
two Kinds of Cacoa's; the moi common, which is like-
wife the bell, is of a dark Colour, bordering on red, and
round: The other, cali'd Patlaxe, is white, larger, thick.e
er, and flatter; its- Quality is Deficcative. Some Drug,
gills, however, fell four Kinds; viz. the great and im,
Carague, and the great and little Cacoa of the IJlan*
which, however, may be probably reduc'd to the two Kinls
above mention'd: It being only the Greatnefs and Smaill
nefs that multiplies the Names and Kinds.
The Cacao 14uts, are efleem'd by the Mexicans as Ano-
dine; and us'd, eaten raw,' to aiuige Paitns of the
They alfQ.procure a kind of Butter or Qil from,

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