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Chambers, Ephraim, 1680 (ca.)-1740 / Cyclopædia, or, An universal dictionary of arts and sciences : containing the definitions of the terms, and accounts of the things signify'd thereby, in the several arts, both liberal and mechanical, and the several sciences, human and divine : the figures, kinds, properties, productions, preparations, and uses, of things natural and artificial : the rise, progress, and state of things ecclesiastical, civil, military, and commercial : with the several systems, sects, opinions, &c : among philosophers, divines, mathematicians, physicians, antiquaries, criticks, &c : the whole intended as a course of antient and modern learning
(1728)

Burnishing - Bylaws,   pp. 135-137 PDF (3.1 MB)


Page 136


1B UY T
in¢ .Bko; yet it is not properly call'd a Suft, that Word
being confined to things in Relievo. The Buft is the fame
with what the Latins call'd Herafom the Greek Hermes,
Mercury; the Image of that God being frequently repre-
fented in this manner among the Athentans.
BusT, is alfo us'd, efSpecially by the Italians, for the
Trunk of an human Body, from the Neck to the Hips.
Some derive the Word from the German Bruft, Stomach:
Menage fetches it from $'ufque, a piece of Wood, Ivory,
Whalebone, or the like, which the Women apply to that
Part of the Body; call'd by the Italians Bufto to keep
themfelves fireight.o
BUST, or BusYuM, in Antiquity, a Pyramid or Pile of
Wood, whereon were antiently plac'd the B odies of the
Deceas'd, in order to be burnt. The Roma-ns borrow'd
the Cuflom of burning their Dead from the Greeks. The
Deceas'd, crown'd with Flowers, and drefs'd in his richeft
Habits, was laid on the  itftum. The nearefl Relations
lighted it with Torches; turning their Faces from it, to
Shew that it was with Reluclance that they did this laft
Office. After the huftum was confum'd, the Women ap-
pointed to collect the Afhes, enclos'd 'em in an Urn, which
was depofited in the Tomb. Some Authors fay, it was
only call'd Ruftum after the burning, quaf? Rene uftum:
before the Burning it was call'd Pyra; during it, Rogus;
and afterwards Buftum.
BUSTUARII, a kind of Gladiators, among the antient
Romans, who fought about the Buftum, or Pile of a de-
ceas'd Perfon, in the Ceremony of his Obfequies. The
Pradice at firfi was, to facrifice Captives on the Tomb, or
at the Buftum of their Warriors: Inflances of which we
have in Homer, at the Obfequies of Petroclus, and among
the Greek Tragedians. Their Blood was fuppos'd to ap-
peafe the Infernal Gods; and render 'em propitious to
the Manes of the Deceas'd. In after Ages, this Cuflom
appear'd too barbarous; and in lieu of thefe Victims, they
appointed Gladiators to fight; whofe Blood, 'twas fup-
pos'd, might have the fame Effet. According to Val.
Maximus and Floras, Marcus and fDecius, Sons of YBrutus,
were the firfi, at Rome, who honour'd the Funerals of their
Father with thefe kind of Spedacles, in the Year of Rome
489. Some fay, the Romans borrow'd this Cuffom from
the Hetrurians; and they from the Greeks. The Word
comes from Buftum, which fee.
BUTCHERY, a Place fet apart, either for the Slaugh-
ter of Cattel, or for the expofing their Flelh to (ale;
otherwife call'd Shambles.  Nero built a noble one at
Rome; on which Occafion was firuck that Medal, whofe
Reverfe is a Building Supported by Columns, and enter'd by
a Perron of four Steps; the Legend, MAC. AUG. S. C.
ANacellum Augufji Senatus-Confulto.
Among the antient Romans there were three Kinds of
Eflablifh'd Butchers; viz. two Colleges, or Companies,
compos'd each of a certain number of Citizens, whofe Of-
fice was to furnifh the City with the neceTary Cattel, and
to take care of preparing and wending the Flefh. One of
thefe Communities, was at fib confin'd to the providing
of Hogs whence they were call'd Suarii; and the other
were ctarg'd with Cattel, efpecially Oxen, whence they
were call Pecuarii, or Boardi. Under each of thefe was
a fubordinate Cla~s, whofe Office was to kill, prepare, Wec.
call'd Lanii, and fometimes Carnifices. Bramon, Modius,
and others, mention a pleafant way of felling Meat, us'd
for fome Ages among this People: The Buyer was to lhut
his Eyes, and the Seller to hold up fome of his Fingers; if
the Buyer guefs'd aright, how many it was the other held
up, he was to fix the Price ; if he miflook, the Seller to
fix it. This Cuflom was abolifh'd by Apronius, Prefe&t of
Rome; who in lieu thereof introduc'd the Method of fel-
ling by Weight.
.Menage, after 7arnebius, derives the Word from Buc-
earius, of Bucca; becaufe the Butcher cuts Meat for the
Mouth: Thus alfo we find, beccarius from beccus. Lan-
celot derives it from the Word RtWsTuf, Killer of Cattel;
Iabbe, a Bovina jeu Bubula carse.
BUTLERAGE of Wines, the Impofition upon Sale
Wine, brought into the Land; which the KinglS Butler,
by virtue of his Office, may take of every Ship, viz,. two
Shillings of every Tonn imported by Strangers.
BUT1MENTS, in Architeaure, thofe Supporters or
Props, on, or againfi which the Feet of Arches re or: Alo
little Places taken out of the Yard, or the Ground-plot of
an Houfe, for a Buttery, Scullery, Tc. are Sometimes cal-
led Butments. The Word comes from the French Bouter,
to abut or terminate on any thing
BUTT, in the Sea Language, the End of any Plank,
'which joins to another on the Outfide of a Shi, under
Water: Hience when a Plank is loofie at one end, they call
it fpringing a Butr; to prevent which, Ships are ufually
bolted at the Burrt-Heads, that is, at the Plank's End.
BUTT, or unipe of Wine, a Meafure containing two
Uogflheads, or one hundred twenty fix* Gallons~
B U T
A Butt of Curants, is from fifteen to twenty twM
hundred Weight.
BUTTER, a fat, unfluous Subftance, prepared, or fepa.
rated from Milk; which is an Affemblage ofthree differeet
Subliances, Butter, Cbeefe, and a Serum, orWhey. See MI L(.
The Word comes from the Greek P'Tvtwgo; as fuppofing it
prepar'd only from Cow's Milk. It was late e'er the Greeks
appear to have had an Notion of Butter; Homer, Thec-
critus, Euripides, and the other Poets, make no mention
of it; and yet are frequently fpeaking of Milk and Cheefe .
And   rifotle, who has colle~ted abundance of Curiofities
relating to the other two, is perfedly filenton this. Pliny
tells us, that Butter was a delicate Difh among the bar-
barous Nations; and was that which diflinguiflid the Rich
fiom the Poor: 'The Romans us'd Butter no otherwife
than as a Medicine, never as a Food. Schookius obferves,
that 'tis owing to the Induflry of the fDutch, that there is
any fuch thing as Butter in the Eaft Indies: that, in
Spain, Butter is only us'd Medicinally, fpr Ulcers; and
adds, that the befl Opiate for making the Teeth white, is
the rubbing 'em with Butter. Cl. A4lexandrinus obferves,
that the antient Chriflians of Egypt burnt Butter in the
Lamps at their Altars, inflead of til; and the Aby tans,
according to Godignus, flill retain a Pra&ice much like it:
Clemens finds a Religious Myffery in it. In the Roman
Churches, it was antiently allow'd, during Chriftmafs time,
to ufe Butter inflead of Oil; by reafon of the great Con-
fumption thereof other ways.  Schookius has a juft Vo-
lume,  De Butyro W      Averfione Cafei; where the
Origin and Phmnomena of Butter are handled in form:
He enquires whether Butter was known in Abraham's
Days, and whether it was the Dilh he entertain'd the An-
gels withal: He examines how it was prepar'd among
the Scytbianss; whence arife its different Colours ; teaches
how to give it its natural Colour; how to chum it, falt it,
keep it, &ic.
BUTTER, in Chymifiry, is us'd to exprefs feveral Prepa-
rations in Chymifiry, as Butter of Antimony, of Arfenic,
of Wax, of Saturn, &c. fo call'd from their Form, Confuf-
tence, Wc. See ANTIMONY, ARSENIC, WAX, Ego
BUTTOCK of a Ship, is her full Breadth right aflerm
fiom the Jack upwards. According as a Ship is built, broad
or narrow at the Tranfom, lhe is Said to have a broad or
narrow Buttock.
BUTTONS, an Article in Drefs, whofe Form, and Ufe is
too familiar to need a Defcription. The Matter whereof
Buttons are made is various; as Metal, Silk, Mohair, Lc.
Metal Buttons, again, are various; both with regard to
the Matter, and Manner of making: Befiaes thofe caft
in Moulds, much in the manner of other fnall Works, (fee
FOUNDEnRY) there are now made great Quantities, with
thin Plates, or Leaves of Gold, Silver, anda Brafs; efipe
cially of the two lafi. The Invention of thefe Buttons e
ing very late, as not having been fet on foot before the Be-
ginning of the XVIIIth Century; and their Stru&ure very
Ingenious, tho of ill ufe, we 1hall here fubjoin it.
Manner of making plated BUTTONS.   The Metal to be
us'd. being reduc'd into thin Plates, or Leaves, of the
Thicknefi intended, (Wither by the Goldfmith or Brafier)
is cut into little round Pieces, of a Diameter proportiona-
ble to the wooden Mould they are to cover: This cutting is
perform'd with a lharp Punch, on a leaden Block or Ta-
ble. Each piece of Metal thus cut, and taken of from
the Plate, is reduc'd to the Form of a Button, by beating
it fucceffively in feveral Spherical Cavities, with a round
Piece of Iron in form of a Punchion; tfill beginnin with
LUit A---  aaV4L7, WMU proceceing to the more SpJ
till the Plate have got an the Relievo requir'd: A
better to manage fo thin a Plate, they form Io or
the Cavities at once; anti alfo boil the Metal to mr
more du&ile. The Infide thus form'cd, they give
preffion to the Outfide, by working it with the fan
Punchion, in a kind of Mould, liketthe Minter's Coi
graven en creux, or indentedly i and fiffen'd to a B
Bench. The Cavity of this Mould, wherein the I
fion is to be made, is of a Diameter and Depth fuit
the fort of Button to be itruck in it; each Kind re,
a particular Mould. Betweenlthe Punchion and .h4
is lac'd fome Lead, which contributes to the better
ow all the Stroaks of the Graving ; the Lead, by
of itsSoftnefs, eafily giving way to the Parts that ha
lievo; and as eafily infinuating it felf into the Tr
Engraving of the Dentures: The Plate thus pri
makes the Upper-part, or Shell of the Button,  T
er Part is foEm'd of another Plate, made afier th
manner, but flatter, and without any Impreffion.  
laft, is folderd a little Eye made of Wire of the fan
ral;* for the Burton to be faf~ind by. The two Pia
foler'd toether, with a wooden Mold, coverd witd
or other Gement, between; in order to render the.
firm and folid: For the Wax entering all the C
forni'd by the Relievo of the other fide, >fdibs
I


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