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Chambers, Ephraim, 1680 (ca.)-1740 / Cyclopædia, or, An universal dictionary of arts and sciences : containing the definitions of the terms, and accounts of the things signify'd thereby, in the several arts, both liberal and mechanical, and the several sciences, human and divine : the figures, kinds, properties, productions, preparations, and uses, of things natural and artificial : the rise, progress, and state of things ecclesiastical, civil, military, and commercial : with the several systems, sects, opinions, &c : among philosophers, divines, mathematicians, physicians, antiquaries, criticks, &c : the whole intended as a course of antient and modern learning
(1728)

Bombard - burning,   pp. 115-134 PDF (20.3 MB)


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t.lyfzis; the other an additional .Sonei growing to another
y mere Contiguity, being generally more fort and porous
than the other, and call'd an Epiphyfis, or Appendage.
If the Protuberance be round, it is call'd the Caput, under
which is the Cervix; if flat, Condylus; if fharp, Corone.
The general Ufes of the Bones, are to fupport and fireng-
then the Body, like Beams and Pillars in Building; to
defend fome of the more effential Parts, as the Brain, Lec.
to give Shape to the Body, and to afliff in Motion.
BONONIAN STONE, a fmall, gray, weighty, foft,
fuiphurous Stone, about the bignefs of a large Walnut i
when broken, having a kind of cryflal or fparry ialc with-
in: found in the Neighbourhood of :Bologne, or Bononia
in Italy, (whence it takes its Name) and in other Parts of
that Country, particularly at the Foot of Mount Palermo 5
where a Shoemaker, one Vincenzo Ca/ciarlo, having ga-
ther'd Come Pieces and carry'd 'em home, in hopes by the
Fire to draw Silver out of 'em ; inflead of what he expec-
ted, found that admirable Phianomenon they exhibit, w"ich
confils in this, that having been expos'd to the Light, they
retain it, and fhine, for the fpace of fix oreight Hours, inthe
Dark. M. Ilomberg was the Perfon who firl taught us the
manner of preparing and calcining the Bononian Stone, hav-
ing made a Journey to Italy on purpofe to learn it. When
prepar'd, 'tis a kind of Phofphorus, under the Appea-
rance of a calcin'd Stone. 'Tis faid, the Art of prepa-
ring and calcining the Bononian Stone is loft, there
having.been but one, an Ecclefliaflick, who had the true
Secret, and who is fince dead, without communicating
it to any Perfon; fee Philofoph. Tranyatf. N' %i. M.
Elpigni obferves, that one Zagonius had a Method of ma-
king Statues and Pictures of the Bonovian Stone, which
would fhine varioufly in the Dark; but he adds, The Per-
fon dy'd without discovering his Secret, Philof. franfi No
134. See PnospHoRus.
BONNET, in Fortification, a Work raifed beyond the
Counter/carp, having two Faces, which form a faliant An-
gle, and as it were a fmall Ravelin without any Trench:
Its Height is about three Foot, and it is environ'd round
with a double Row of Pallifadoes, ten or twelve Paces
diflant from each other; hath a Parapet three Foot high,
and is like a little advanced Corps du Guard.
BONNET a Prefire, or Prie]t's-Cap, is an Outwork,
having at the Head three faliant Angles, and two inwards:
It differs from the Double 2enaille only in this, that its
Sides, inflead of being parallel, are made like a Swallow's
Tail ; that is, narrowing, or drawing clofe at the Gorge,
and opening at the Head.
BONNETS, in the Sea-Language, finall Sails, fet on
upon the Courfes, on the Main-fail and Fore-fail of a Ship,
when too narrow or fhallow to clothe the Mail; or to
make more way in calm Weather. The Words are, Lace
on the Bonnet; that is, faflen it to the Courfe: Shake off
thr Bonnet; that is, take it off the Courfe.
BOOKBINDING, the Art of binding, or covering
Books. No doubt, the Art of Binding is almofl as antient
as the Science of Compofing Books ; and that both the
one and the other follow'd immediately the firit Invention
of Letters; fee LETTER. Whatever the Matter were
whereon Men firfi wrote, there was a Neceffity for uniting
the feveral Parts together ; as well for the making one
Piece, as for the better preferving 'em : Hence the Origin
of Binding; for which, in all appearance, we are indebt-
ed to the Fgyptians, that learned People, among whom
the Arts and Sciences begap to flourifh Qo early.
7he AManner of binding- BooKs in Volumes, i. e. of few-
ing the Leaves together, to roll 'em on round Pieces or
Cylinders of Wood, appears the moft Antient * tho that of
bi nding 'em fquare, and of fewing feveral Quires over one
another, lays claim to good Antiquity. The firfl of the
two, which we may call Eg~yptian binding, held a long
time after the Age of Augujlus5; but 'tis now difus'd, ex-
cepting in the . /ewiOh Synagogues, where they continue to
write the Books of the Law on Velloms few'd together;
making, as it were, only one long Pagee, with two Rollers,
and their Clafps of Gold or Silver at each Extremity. The
Form now in ufe, is thefquare Binding,; which is faid to
have been invented by one of the Attali, Kings of 'Pergo-
mus; to whom we likewife owe the manner of preparing
Parchmetlt; call'd in Latin, from  the Name of his
Capitol, Pergamena, or Charta Pergamea: See PARciI-
MENT.
Manner of binding Books. The firfi Operation is to fold
the Sheets according to the Form, viz. into two for Folio's,
four for Quarto's, eight for O&avo's, fec. which they do
with a flip of Ivory or Box, call'd a Folding-flick: In this
the Workman is direded by the Catch-Words and Signa-
tures at the Bottom of the Pages;5 fee PRINTING. The
Leaves thus folded, and laid over each other in the Order
of the Signatures, are beaten on a Stone with a Hammner,
to prefs and flatten 'em, fo as they may take lefs Room in
the Binding: 'Tihey are then few'd in the Se-viox-TPre
with a long Needle a little crook'd. What they call J~u.
ing, is the fixing to the Back certain Cords, call'd Band,
at a proper Diflance from each other, and in a convenient
Number; which is done by drawing a Thread thro the
Middle of each Sheet, and giving it a turn round each
Band, beginning with the firff and proceeding to the laih
They ordinarily put fix Bands in a Folio, and five in the
refi. To cut the Edges of the Book, 'tis faflen'd in a Cut-
ting-Prefi, between two Boards, fomewhat longer than the
Book, and the Knife gradually conduaed over the Extre-
mities of the Leaves, by means of a Skrew to which it is
faften'd: Of the two Cutting-Boards, that behind is higher
than the other, and ferves to fuflain the Edges of the Book-
that before, which is lower, ferving to dire& the Knifie
which flides underneath. See PREss.
The Edges finifh'd, the Book is put into Boards; that
it, the Paffboards are fitted to its whereon the Leather, the
Book is to be cover'd withal, is afterwards apply'd  The
Paflboard is firfm well beaten on the Stone with a Hamrnmeri
and is fitted on by means of the Bands; the Ends where-
of are pafs'd thro three Holes, punch'd on the Edge of the
Pafiboard againil each Band: The Pafiboards are then cut
even with the Edges of the Book, by means of a long
lharp Initrument with a wooden Handle, which the Work-
man applies to his Shoulder, and conduds the other End
with his Hand, by the Edge of a Ruler laid on the Pail-
board. After this, in the French Binding, a Book is put
in Parchment, i. e. a flip of Parchment, the Length of the
Book, is apply'd on the Infide of each Pafiboard; fo, how-
ever, as that being cut or indented in the Places againfi the
Bands, it comes out between the Edge of the Pailboard
and the Leaves of the Book to cover the Back: This Pre-
paration, call'd Indorfing, feems peculiar to the French
Binders; who are enjoin'd by Ordonnance to back their
Books with Parchment, on the Penalty of 3o Livres, and
the Re-binding of the Book: 'Tis done in the Prefs, where
the Back-being grated with an Iron Inflrument with Teeth,
to make the Paf take hold, wherewith the Parchment is
firil faflen'd; they afterwards add firong Glue to fortify it.
The Headband is now added; which is an Ornament of
Silk of feveral Colours, or even, fometimes, of Gold or
Silver, plac'd at each Extreme of the Back, acrofs the
Leaves; and wove, or twilled, Sometimes about a fingle,
and fometimes a double piece of roli'd Paper. This,
befides its being an Ornament, alfo ferves to fix the Sheets
at Top and Bottom. In this State there remains nothing
but to Bevil the inner Edges of the Pafiboards; take off
the four Angles, to facilitate the opening of the Book;
and to blacken, gild, or marble the Edges: in order to fir
the Rook for covering. See MARBLING, bC.
Manner of Gilding Books on the Edges. The Book is
put between two Boards, and very fliffly fqueez'd in the
Prefs; in which State, the Edge is fcrap'd with a little
crooked Iron Inflrument, which, being moderately fharp,
takes off any unevenness left in the Cutting. On the Edge
thus fcrap'd is laid a Ground for the Gold. This Ground is
a Compofition of the Armenian Bole, red Chalk, black
Lead, and a little Tallow beaten together, and fleep'd in
hot Size, made of Parchment, much the fame with that
ufed in Gilding in Water; fee GILDING. The Ground being
well dried, is glazed lightly with the Whites of Eggs bea-
ten ; and over this the Gold is applv'd. The Gold here
us'd, is in the Leaf, as prepar'd by the Gold-beaterL The
Infirument wherewith they take it up, confifts of two Bran-
ches of Iron, moveable on a Rivet in the Middle; fome-
what like an X, or a Pair of ScifCars without Rings. When
the Workman has laid the Leaf Gold in fit order, he rubs
the Ends of the Branches againft his Cheek, which gives
'em the degree of Warmth neceflary to make the Golilick
thereto: The Gold thus taken up, is apply'd on the Edge
oftheBook, andfpreadfmooth with aHairBrufh: Andte
Edge thus cover'd with Gold, is dry'd by the Fire, without
taking it out of the Prefs, and afterwards burnilih'd; *fee
BuRNISHING. On the Gold thus -apply~d, they antient
made Ornaments, with hot Irons of various Forms and
Devifes; the Pradice of which feem'd i to have been Xt-
triev'd in France about the beginning of the VIIth Cen-
tury, and carry'd to a good Perfefion by the Abbot de St-
uil, and others; and call'd by a new-invented Name, An-
tiquing: But as the Modern Tafle feerms rather inclin'td
to Simplicity, 'tis probable thefe Aitiquo-Modern Orna'
ments will be dropp'd again.
For the Covers; tho the Skins us'd herein, undergo Cf-
veral Preparations in the Hands of other Workmen; y
there are lome fill left for the Binder, and Peculiar to his
Art: Thefe we Ihale explain,; in Calf, as being the Lea-
ther mod -u'dp and, as being that to which all 4ie reil,
with a little Variation, may be refcrr'd. The Calfikin,> then,
being well foak'd in Water, isfcrap'd with a kindof blunt two-
han4cd Knife, and cut into fquare pieces of the proper Sizes
3          W                       with


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