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Chambers, Ephraim, 1680 (ca.)-1740 / Cyclopædia, or, An universal dictionary of arts and sciences : containing the definitions of the terms, and accounts of the things signify'd thereby, in the several arts, both liberal and mechanical, and the several sciences, human and divine : the figures, kinds, properties, productions, preparations, and uses, of things natural and artificial : the rise, progress, and state of things ecclesiastical, civil, military, and commercial : with the several systems, sects, opinions, &c : among philosophers, divines, mathematicians, physicians, antiquaries, criticks, &c : the whole intended as a course of antient and modern learning

Beglerbeg - bomb,   pp. 95-114 PDF (20.8 MB)

Page 114

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Attra4?iou efthe Particles of Water around'ei ; or by break-
ing and Separating the little Spherules of Water, and fo in-
creafing the Ratio of their Surface to their folid Content.
There will therefore be a conflant Flux of Water from the
Bottom of the Veiel to the Top; and confequently a re-
ciprocal Flux from the Top to the Bottom: i. e. The up-
per and under Water will change Places; and hence we
Save the Reafon of that Phxnomenon, of the Water's be-
ing hot at Top fooner than at Bottom. Again, an intenfe
Heat will diminifli the fpecifick Gravity of Water, fo as
not only to make it mount in Water, but alfo in Air;
whence arife the Phznomena of Vapour and Sinoak: Tho
the Air inclofed in the Interilices of the Water, mufl: be al-
lnw'd a good fhare in this Appearance: for that, Air being
dilated, and. its Spring ilrengthned by the Affion of the
Fire, breaks its Prifon, and afcends thro the Water into the
Air ; carrying with it fome of the contiguous Spherules of
Waiter, fo many as fhall hang in its Villi, or as can adhere
inmediately to it. The Particles of Air in the feveral In-
t'rflices of the fluid Mafs thus expanded, and moving up-
wards, will meet and coalefce in their Paffage; by which
means great Quantities of the Water will be heav'd up,
and let fall again alternately; as the Air rifes up, and again
paifes from the Water: For the Air, after Coalition, tho it
inay buoy up a great heap of Water, by its Elaflicity while
in the Water, yet can't carry it up together with itfelf into
the Atmofphere; fince when once got free from the upper
Surface of the Water in the Veffel, it will unbend itfelf in the
Atmofphere, and fo its Spring and Force become juil equal
to that of the common unheated Air.  Add to this, that
were the Spring and Motion of the Air fufficient to carry
up the Water with it, yet it would not have that Effie&;
but the Water wou'd run off at the Extremities of the
Air; all, except fo much as lhould be either entangled in
its Villi, or immediately adhere to its Surface by Attrac-
tion: And hence we fee the Reafon of the principal Phz-
nomenon of Boiling, viz?. The fluaiuating of the Surface
Water, only lukewarm, boils very vehemently in the Re-
cipient of an Air-Pump, when the Air is exhaufled: The
Reafon is obvious; for the Preifure of the Atmofphere be-
ing taken off from its Surface, the Air included in the In-
terilices of the Water, dilated by a feeble Heat, has Spring
enough to heave up the Water, and difengage itfelf.-
Whei the Water ceafes boiling, it is again excited thereto
by pouring cold Water upon the Recipient; and when it
boils the moal vehemently, ceafes by pouring on hot Water:
The Reafon whereof is fcarce guefs'd at. See HEAT,FiRE,Ec.
BOLE, in Medicine, is us'd, in the general, for feveral
Rinds of Earths that enter Galenical Preparations, and are
ufed by Painters and other Artifts. See EARTHS.
BOLE-ARMONLIAC, or A4mmoniac, is a kind of Earth,
of confiderable Medicinal I Virtue, brought from Armenia.
AThe Phyficians fometimes call it Rubrica Synopica, from
the City of Synope, where it is fuppos'd to be found. 'Tis
of a pale red Colour, and partakes much of the Nature of
Stone ; but foft, fat, friable, eafily pulveriz'd, and ficks
to the Tongue. 'Tis efleem'd Deficcative and Stiptic; in
which Quality 'ris us'd in feveral Difeafes, both internal
and external. This Bole is eafily falfify'd; and the Merchants
frequently fell Lemnian-Earth in lieu thereof. Mattbiolus
lays, 'tis found in Gold, Silver, and Copper Mines. See
BOLE of the levant, is a Medicinal Earth brought from
the Levant ; nearly of the fame Nature, and having the fame
Ufes with the Bole-Armoniac. Pomet fays, there is no
fuch thing among us, as either true flole-Armoniac, or
B6ole of the Levant; and that all the ftoles now in ufe,
are brought either from the Provinces of France, or the
neighbouring Countries. But this does not feem fufficient-
ly warranted; and the New 7arifs, or Duties on Goods
imported into France, which mention 'em both, make it
credible that there are of either kind imported into that
Kingdomn.  Indeed, it appears, that 'tis the Levant $Bolc
which paffle among us for the Armoniac: It enters feveral
Compofitions, particularly fDiafcodium, to give it the Co-
lour, TIc.
BOLLANDISTS, a modern Term, now become of
fome 'Confequence in the Republick of Letters. The fol-
landijis, are certain 7ejfuits of Ant werp, who have been a
confiderable Time, and continue flill employ'd in collec-
ting the Lives of the Saints. As we find frequent Occa-
fion to quote that learned Body in this Work, and are in-
debted to em for feveral excellent Obfervations that occur
therein; the Reader will not be difpleas'd to find the Oc-
cafion of their Name.
In the beginning of the XVIIth Century, F. Heribert
Rofneide, a Jefuit of SAntverp; laid a Defign of colleffing
the Lives of the Saints, as wrote by the Original Authors,
with Notes, like thofe added to his Lives of the Fathers,
to clear obfcure Pafafages, and diflinguifh the Genuine from
the Spurious: He died in 16zg, e'er the Work was begun.
The Y~ear following, A. Bollandus, a Jefuit of the fame
Houfe, took up the Defign; and whereas Roflaeide only
propofed to colleSt the Lives already compofed, B0ollandus
undertook, where there was no Life of a Saint extant, to
compofe new ones from the Authors who had mention'd
'em.  In 1635, he took in G. HInfcbenias a Partner with
him; and in 164r, publiih'd the Saints of the Month of
.anuary, in two large Volumes, Folio. In i65o, F. Pap-
broch became an Aftociate; and, Henyrhenius dying, F.
fBaert, Janning, Sollier, and Raye were call'd in, who are
fill alive, and continue the Work: whereof, in 8o Years,
there have appear'd 24 Volumes, for the firfi fix Months
of theRoman Calendar.
BOLT-HEAD, the fame as Matras; a Velfel ufed by
the ChymiJfs, fee MA&tiAs.
BOLTING, a Method of Pleading, or Arguing, in ufe
in the Inns of Court; inferior to Mooting. The Cafe is ar-
gued firfl by three Students, then by two BarriJfers X a Se-
nior fitting Judge. The Word came from the Saxon B olt,
an H1oufe, becaufe done privately within Doors for Inflruc-
tion. See BRNCHER, and MOOTING.            I
BOLTS of Iron, in Building, are diflinguilh'd into
three Kinds, Plate, Round, and Spring-Bolts.
BorLTS, or Iron Pins in a Ship are of feveral forts: As, Ring-
Bolts, ferving for the bringing to of the Planks, Eic. Drive-
!Bolts, ufed to drive out others; Setr-$olts, employ'd for
forcing the Planks and other Works, and bringing them
clofe to one another ; Rag-Bolts, on each fide full of Jags
or Barbs, to keep them from flying out of their Holes;
Clencb-!Bolts, for the fame end clenc 'd, or faften'd at the
Ends where they come thro i Fore-B8olts, made like Locks
with an Eye at each end, whereinto a Forelock of Iron is
driven to prevent flarting out; Fender-fBolts, made with
long and thick Heads, flruck into the uttermoil Bends or
Wales of a Ship, to fave her Sides from Bruifes and Hurts.
BOLUS or BOLE, in Medicine, an extemporaneous
Form of a Medicine, of a foft Confiflence, fomewhat ex-
ceeding that of an Elecluary, and of the Quantity of one
Dofe; contrived principally for the fake of fuch as have
an Averfion to potable Medicines; as alfo for the better
Conveyance of certain Preparations of Mercury, Antimo-
ny, &c. which by their Weight would fink to the bottom
of the Glafs, were they mix'd with Fluids. There are
B8olus's of various kinds, made with Eleauaries, Confec-
tions, Conferves, Pulps, Pouders, Salts, Oils, Elfences,
Extrafs, Syrups, &c. fome of which Ingredients muit
always have Solidity or Drinefs enough, to give a Confif-
tence to thofe that are Liquid.
BOMB, a large Granada, or hollow Iron Ball, or Shell
fill'd with Gunpouder, and furnilh'd with a Fufee, or wooden
Tube full of a Combuflible Matter i to be thrown out from
a Mortar. See MOTAPR.
The Method of preparing a Bomb is as follows: A hollow
Iron Globe A B, (Tab. Pyrotechnia, Fig. I.) is call pretty
thick, having a round Aperture A, by which it may be fill'd
and lighted; and circular Handles C D, for the commodious
putting it into the Mortar. To prove whether it be launch,
after heating it red-hot on the Coals, it is expos'd to the Air,
fo as it may cool gently: for fince Fire dilates Iron, if there
be any hidden Chinks or Perforations, they will thus beopen'd
and enlarg'd; and the rather, becaufe of the Spring of the
included Air continually a&ini from within. This done, the
Cavity of the Globe is fill'd with hot Water, and the Aper-
ture well flopp'd; and the outer Surface wafh'd with cold
Water and Soap: So that if there be the finallell Leak, the
Air, rarefy 'd by the Heat, will now perfpire, and form Bub-
bles on the Surface. If no Defe& be thus found in the
Globe, its Cavity is fill'd with whole Gunpouder; -a little
Space, or Liberty is left, that when a wooden Tube A E, of
the Figure of a truncated Cone, is driven thro the Aperture,
and faifen'd with a Cement made of Quick Lime, Aflies,
Brickduft, and Steel-filings work'd together in a glutinous
Water; or, of four Parts of Pitch, two of Colophony, one of
Turpentine, and one of Wax; the Pouder mayn't be bruis'd.
This Tube is fill'd with a Corabuffible Matter, made of
two Ounces of Nitre, one of Sulphur, and three of Gun-
pouder-duff, well ramm'd. This Fufee fet on fire, burns
lowly till it reach the Gunpouder, which goes off at once,
burling the Shell to pieces with incredible Violence:
Whence the ufe of fBombs in befieging Towns. Special Care,
however, mull be taken, that the Fufee be fo propotion'd, as
that the Gunpouder don't take Fire o'er the Shell arrives at
the deftin'd Place; to prevent which, the Fufee is frequent-
ly wound round with a wet clammy Thread.
Bombs being made of difforent Magnitudes, it may be
proper to exhibit fome of their Dimenfions ; as in the follow-
ing Table.
Diam. o Thickne s Diam.of Quant. o   Weight
Bomb. 1 of Bomb   Apert. Gunpoud ofBomb.
17, s   Z,     ,a0 o   4 lb.   490 lb.
I 1,  8  I    I     A6I     5   I   30
8         ol       I ?      4        AO40

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