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Chambers, Ephraim, 1680 (ca.)-1740 / Cyclopædia, or, An universal dictionary of arts and sciences : containing the definitions of the terms, and accounts of the things signify'd thereby, in the several arts, both liberal and mechanical, and the several sciences, human and divine : the figures, kinds, properties, productions, preparations, and uses, of things natural and artificial : the rise, progress, and state of things ecclesiastical, civil, military, and commercial : with the several systems, sects, opinions, &c : among philosophers, divines, mathematicians, physicians, antiquaries, criticks, &c : the whole intended as a course of antient and modern learning

Antinomasy - Arbor,   pp. 110-128 ff. PDF (18.5 MB)


Page 128


The Artfometer, or Water-poifei, is ufually made of
Glafs; confifling of a round hollow Ball, which terminates
in a long flender Neck, hermetically feal'd a-top: there be-
ing firfi, as much running Mercury put into it, as will ferve
*to ballance or keep it fwimming in an ered Pofition.
The Stem is divided into Degrees; (as represented
Tab. MISCELLANY, fig. 18.) and by the Depth of its De-
fcent into any Liquor, its Lightnefs is concluded; for that
Fluid in Which it finks leaft, mud be heavieft; and that in
which it finks lowell, lightefl. Sce WATER. vife,  c.
I M. Homberg has invented a new Areeoi~eterb defcribed
in PhiloJlirAnfat. No z 62. thus: A (fig. i9b) is a'Glafs-
bottle or Matrafs, with fo flender a Neck, that a Drop of
Water takes up in it about five or fix Lines, or 7% of an
Inch. Near that Neck is a finall capillary Tube X, about
fix Inches long, and parallel to the Neck -To fill the
VeTel, the Liquor is poured in at the Mouth X, (which is
widen'd to receive a Tunnel) till it run out at iD; that is,
till it rife in the Neck to the Mark C, by which means
you have always the fame Bulk or Quantity of Liquor;
and confequently, by means of the Balance, can eafily tell,
when different Liquors fill it, which weighs moi, or is moft
intensely heavy.
Some regard, however, is to be had to the Seiafon'of the
Year, and Degree of Heat and Cold in the Weather: by
reafon fome Liquors rarefy with Heat, and condenfe with
Cold, more than others; and accordingly take up more or
lefs room. See SPECIFICx Gravity, RAREFACTION,
By means of this Inflrument, the ingenious Author has
made a Table, to fhew the different Weights of the fame
Bulk of the m oil confiderable chemical Liquors, both in
Summer and Winter; as follows:
be Armometer full of I weigl'd in Summer. I in Triinter.
oz.
Quick-filver - IL
Oil of Tartar      oi
Spirit of Urine -o1
Oil of Vitriol --ox
Spirit of Nitre -ot
--         Salt    0I
Aqua Fortis -   -or
Dif*illed Vinegar -oo
Spirit of Wine--co
River Water---0o
Diffilled Water--oo
dr.
00
03
00
03
ox
I00
Cl
07
:o6
07
07
The Infirument itfelf weighed,
twenty, eight Grains.
gr.   oZ.
07  - 1
31   01
58- 01
40-a01
38-01
5 5-  0o
47--00
53--00
50--o
dr.
00
03
GO
C,4
01'
0o
01
07
o6
07
07
gr.
31
31
43
03
70
47
5S
6o
6r
57
54
when empty, one Dram
ARA!OSTYLE, ARmOSTYLOS, in the antient Archi-
tedure, a fort of Intercolumination; wherein the Columns
were placed at the Diflance of eight, or, as fome Cay, ten
Modules from one another. See INTERCOLUMNIATION.
In the Areoftyle the Columns were the widefl and o-
penefi they were ever planted at; whence the Name: from
the Greek te-uos, rarus, and ;vwos, Column.
The Arefoflyle is chiefly ufed in the 'lrAWcan Order; at
the Gates of great Cities and Fortreffes.
AkROTIC$.S, orAREoTIcxs, in Medicine, fuch Re-
medies as tend to open the Pores of the Skin, and render
them large enough for the inorbifick Matter's being carried
off by Sweat or infenfible Perfpiration. See PORE, SWEAT,
PRzsPIRATow, &C.
To the Clafs of Areoticks belong Diaphoreticks, Sudo-
uificks, Fec. See DIAPnoRETICit, SUDORIFICK, )c.
ARAIGNEE, in Fortification, a Branch, Return, or
Gallery of a Mine. See MINE, eC.
ARANEA Ytunica. See AR ACHNOIDES.
ARATRUM I'errie, in our antient Law-books, as much
Land as can be tilled with one Plough-Hoc manerium
eft 30 Aratrorum. See CARRUCATA T Jrerre.
AR ATURA Merre, an antient Service which the Tenant
was to do his Lord, by ploughing his Land. See SERVICE,
tic.
ARBALET, or BALISTAk, a kind of Weapon, vulgarly
calleda Crol3-bow.  See HARQUEBUSS.
It confiffs of a Steel-bow, Cet in a Shaft of Wood, fur-
nilh'd with a String and a Tricker; and is bent with a piece
of Iron fitted for that purpofe-It ferves to throw Bul-
lets, large Arrows, Darts, U0c.
The Antients had large Machines to throw Arrows with-
al, called Arbalets or Baliftee. See BALISTA.
The Word is derived from Arbalifta, i. e. Arcubalifla, a
Bow with a Sling.
ARBITER, in the Civil Law, a Judge nominated by
the Magiftrate, or chofen voluntarily by two contending
Parties, on whom they confer a Power, by Compromife, of
deciding their Difference according to Law. See JVDGl And
COMPROMISE.
A P
The Romans fometimes li
but ordinarily they chofe fevw
Number. See ARIBITRATIO
In Matters wherein the Pub
Marriages, Affiirs of State, e
recourfe to Arbit.ers-No
from an arbitral Sentence; ti
to fufpend the Authority of a
pad. See APPEAL.
Among the Moderns there
Arbiters; fome, obliged to go
and others, authorized by the
or give way to natural Equity
See ARBITRATION.
7u7linian abfolutely fbrbids
Arbiter, or rather;Arbitrefi ;
becoming the Sex. And yet F
an Arbitral Sentence given by
ARBITRAGE, or ARBr
TION.
ARBITRARY, fomethin'
termination 4fMen 5 or not
tive Law or Injundion. See:'
The Puniflhment of fuch a (
trary Fines or Mulfs are ufua
AMERCEMENT.
The Laws or Meafures w.
Arbitrary; at leaft all the
NATURE.
ARBITRARY TPoW&er. See DESPOTICK, PowER,
r.A JTYGVERNJ41MENT.
The Word is form'd from the Latin Arbitrium,
whence alfo Arbiter, Arbitrator, &c.
ARBITRATION, or ARBITREMENT, the rel
I-        I  - ~  *-  .1  -~  *~_  _f  -  - -
of a tCaute or Quarrel to the txecinon or -one, or Li
different Perfons under the Quality and Denomin
Arbiters, or Arbitrators. See ARBITER and AR.
TION.
Among us, two Aibitrators are ufually chofe by i
tending Parties; and in cafe thefe cannot agree, a
added, called an Umpire; in whofe Deciion bot
lMLLB A-Cmla11v tn nrouief.
ARBITRATOR, an extraordinary Judge, or Coa
fioner, in one or more Caufes between Party and
chofen by their mutual Confents. See ARBITRATIO
- An Arbitriment is either general, that is, includi
Affions, Quarrels, and Demands; or fpecial, whii
ciuoe   on  -r rnor 1V14 L[ _ " raf.tr lpvijlv
cludes one or moreUf 1L4xLLCLr, fix racesa xpvucma.
The Civilians make a difference between Arbiter
Arbitrator, tho they both ground their Power on the C
. -  I  I  -   .  ~ ~ *  r. t-   -  1  P
promile ot the P~arries yet their Liberty is cDo
an Arbiter is tied to proceed and judge according
With Equity intermingled; whereas an Arbitraj
mitted wholly to his own Dicrrction, without' Sole
Procefs, or Courfe of Judgment, to hear or dete
Controverfy committed to him; Co it be juxta,
boni Viri. See ALTO Eg J~F
ARBOR, in natural Hiftory, Botany, Fic. See
ARBOR in Chytnifry-_ARBOR Thilefopthica, i
common to feveral Metalline Cryflallizations X t
from their-Ramifications refembling a Tree.
STALLIZATION-Such are the
ARBOR 2Jianm, Diana's f'ree. See DIANA'S'
ARBOR M4artis, 2Treeof Mars. See TREE of
ARBtOR PorphAriana, among the Schoolmen, is
beings; or a Figure, confifting% of three Rows or
of Words; Xthe middlemoft whereof contains the
Genera and Species ; and bears ome Analog
Trunk; and the Ettremes, containing the Diffe
the Branches of a Tree.  See GENUS, SPEC
DIFFERENCE-      Such is
SUBSTANCF
Thinking      '  Extended
BODY
Inapimate        Animatq
ANIMAL
Irrational   I Rational
MAN
This      That
PLATO.
The Arbor TPorphyriana is otherwife called ZSc
camesxtalis. See PRAjEbC8cMENT, Lc.
ARBoR Genealogica, or Tree of Cotfainguinity
a Lineage drawn out, under the Fixure or Refet
Root, Stock, Branches, Tc. See CoNSANGUIN
tEALOGY, STOCKx, fC.
ARBOR 1s alfo figuratively ufed in Mechantci
principal part of a Machine, which ferfies to i
re i-It is alfo ufed fi4r a Spindle or Axis I
Machine turns,
AnA3
A v r,,
( I28 )
VILA"                       .-


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