Chambers, Ephraim, 1680 (ca.)-1740 / Cyclopædia, or, An universal dictionary of arts and sciences : containing the definitions of the terms, and accounts of the things signify'd thereby, in the several arts, both liberal and mechanical, and the several sciences, human and divine : the figures, kinds, properties, productions, preparations, and uses, of things natural and artificial : the rise, progress, and state of things ecclesiastical, civil, military, and commercial : with the several systems, sects, opinions, &c : among philosophers, divines, mathematicians, physicians, antiquaries, criticks, &c : the whole intended as a course of antient and modern learning
Analecta - antimony, pp. 83-109 PDF (20.2 MB)
AN ( g ' t, A ANALYSIS, in Logick, a Method of applying the Rule4 of Reafoning, to refolve a Pifcourfe into its Principles; ini order to a Difcovery of its Truth, or Falflhood. See PRIM CIPLE. Or, Aiudy/s is an Examination of Come Difcourfe, Proper fition, or other Matteir by fearching into its Principles, and feparating aid opening its Parts; in order to confider theni more diflinctly, and arrive at, a more precife Knowledge of the Whole. See DISCOURSE, PROPOSITioN, REDUCTIONi The Word is Greek, dvdAwfo which literally fignifies, Reo folution; form'd of Cic, and A-0) folvo, refolvo, I loofen, I refolve. Analyl/s makes one great Branch or Species of Method; called alfo Refolution.- See METHOD, and RESOLUTION. ANALYSIS, in Mathematicks, a Method of folving, or re4 folving Mathematical Problems. See PkOBLEiM. There are two general Methods of finding Truth in Mao. thematicks5 Synthefis, and Analyfis.-A1nayfzs is the De- mopliration, or Confideration of the Confequences drawn from any Propofition3 in which a Man proceeds, till he comes to fosne known Truth, by means whereof, he may be able to give a Solution of the Problem. See RESOLTITION., The Method of Ainalyis confifls more in the Judgment and readinefs of Apprehenfion, than in any particularRuler, where pure Geometry is made uoe of, as it was among the. Antients; but at prefent Algebra is principally ufed on this Occafion, which furnifhes certain Rules to perform or arrive at the End propofed. See ANALYTIC. This Met hod, under its prelent Improvements, mull be allowed the Apex or Height of all human Learning; being the great Infirument or means whereby fo many furprizing Pifcoveries have been of late Years made, both in Mathe. maticks, and Philofophy. It furnifhes the modl perfedt In. fiances, 4nd f amples of the Art of Reafoning; gives the Mind a furprizing Readinefs at deducing and difcovering Things unknown, from a few !L7ata; and by ufing Signs for Ideas, prefents Things to the Imagination, which other- wife feem'd out of its Sphere. By this, Geometrical Demonftrations may be wonderfully abridg'd; and a long Series of Argumeptations, wherein the Mind cannot with- out the utmosi Effort and Attention difcover the Connecliori of Ideas, are hereby converted into fenfible Signs, and the feveral Operation. requir'd therein, efte;ed by the Combi- nation of thofe Signs. But what is yet more extraordinary, by means of this Art, a Number of Truths are frequent- ly exprefs'd by a fingle Line, which in the common way of explaining and demonfirating Things, would fill whole Volumes : Thus, by mere Contemplation of one fingle Line, whole Sciences may fometimes be learnt in a few Minutes time; which otherwife could fcarce be attain'd in many Years. See MATHEMATICXS,KNOWLEDGE, THEOREM,eC. nalyl/is, is divided, with regard to its Objea, into that of Finites, and that of Infinites. ANALYSIS of finite 0Qantities, is what we otherwife call Specious Arithmetick, or Algebra. See ALG EBD A, and Specious ARITHIMETICK. ANALYSIS of Infnites, called alfo the New ANALYSIS, is particularly ufed for the MetIhod of Fluxions, or Differen- tial Calculus. See FLUXIONS, and CALCULUS.-See alfo INFINITE. ANALYSIS, is alfo ufed in Chymiffry, for the decompound- ing of a mixt Body ; or the Reduaion thereof into its Prin- ciples. See PRINCIPLE, REDUCTION, DECOMPOSITION, BODY, SC.D To analyze Bodies, or refolve 'em into their component Parts, is the chief Obje&c of the Art of Chymiftry. See CHYMISTRY. The Analyfis of Bodies is chiefly efe!?ed by means of Fire. See FIRE. All Bodies, by a Chymical Analy./i's, refolve into Water, Earth, Salt, Sulphur, and Mercury; tho every Body does not afFord all thefe Parts, but fonie more, fome lefs, accord- ing to the Kingdom they belong to. See ELEMENT.-See alfo WATER, EARTH, SALT, EC. The Analyrfs of Vegetables is eafy; that of Fouls, parti- cularly Metals and Semi-metals, difficult. See VEGETABLE, FOSSIL, METAL, SC. Some Bodies of the Foffil Tribe confifd of Particles fo ve- .y minute, and fo firmly united, that the Corpufcles thereof need lefs heat to carry them off, than to feparate 'em into their Principles: So that the .naly/i's is impracticable in Such Bodies.-Hence the difficulty of analy/lug Sulphur. wee SULPHUR. The Anatomical Difrecion of an Animal, is a kind of 4ualyfis. See ANAToMY, and DISSECTION. ANALYSIS is alfo ufed for a kind of Syllabus, or Table of the principal Heads, or Articles of a 'ontinued Difcourfe; Iifpofed in their natural Order, and Dependency ..Alna0 is are more fcientifical than Alphabeticalnexes ut are Aef ufed, as being more intricate. r efides the antient kind of Anagram, there have bden hew ones invented, as, the Afathematical Anagram, invent- ed in x68o; by which the Abbot Catelan found, that, the eight Letters of the Name of Lewis XIV. made Vrai ieros, i. e. true Hero. We are now likewife furni'hd with the Numerical A- gram; where the numeral Letters (i. e. fuch as in the Romang cyphering flood for Numbers) taken together, ac- cprding to their numerical Values, exprefs fome Epocha: Of which kind is that Diflich of Godart on the Birth of the late Rench King, in the Year i638, on a Day wherein there was a Conjunflion of the Eagle with the Lion's Heart: eXorlens DeLpbln aEVIL Corl IbyVe Leonis c~refV gaLLos fpe LetltlaqVe refeClt. NALECTA, a Greek Term, fignifying Colledion'; ~ofr!Ayv, Igather. Al l ElMMAl a Planifphere; or Projeflion of the Sphere, on the Plane of the Meridian, orthographically made, by frait Lines ands Ellipfes; the Eye being fuppofed to be at an infinite Diftaiicei and in the EafX or Wefd Points of the Horizon. See PLkANi8Pi1ERE, PROJECTION, and SPHERE. ANALEMMAi, is alfo ufed for an Alrolabe; or kind of InfIrument, confifling of the Furniture of the fame Projec- tion, drawn on a Plate of Brafs or Wood; with in Ho- rizon or Curfor fitted to it. See ASTROLABE. Its ufe is for finding the Time of the Sun's rifing and fetting, the Length of the longefi Day in any Latitude, and the Hour of the Day. The Analemma is alfo of confiderable ufe among Diali [Is, for laying down the Signs of the Zodiack, with the tlength of Days, and other Matters of Furniture, upon Dials. See DIAL, and FURNITURE. The Word is derived from the Greek drvcr.4, of 4'vysA- Ody, refumo. ANALEPTICKS, in Medicine, Refioratives; or Reme- dies proper to retlore the Body, when wafted or emaciated, either by the Continuance of a Difeafe, or the Want of Food. See RESTOR ATIVE. The Word is Greek, 'Aramrir1xaix, derived of 'A&A6q43vO, I re-efrablijh, reftore. ANALOGY, a certain Relation, Proportion, or Agree- ment, which feveral Things, in other refipefs different, bear to each other.-Such is that between the Bull in the Hea- vehs, and the Animal fo called on Earth. The Word is Greek, 'Adagio; which the Latins ufually render by Comparatio, and Proportionalitas: And hence, among Geormietricians, Analogy' is frequently ufed for a Si- militude of Ratio's; called alfo Proportion. See PROPoR- TION. Reafonings by Analoy may ferve to explain and illufirate, but not to prove any thing; yet is a great deal of our phi- lofophizing no better foundcd. See SiMILITUDE, PuiLOSO, PHIZING, eC. In Matters of Language, we fay, New Words are form'd by Analogy, i. e. new Names are given to new Things, conformably to the eflablilh'd Names of other Things of the like Nature and Kind. See LANGUAGE, and WORD.- The Difficulties and Obfcurities in a Language, are chiefly to be clear'd up by Analogy. See ETYMOLOGY. the Schoolmen define Analogy to be a Refemblance, join'd with fome Diverfity: Its Foundation, according to them, is laid in the Proportion of feveral Things, confider'd as that Proportion proceeds upon different Confiderations. See PROPORTION. Thus, a found Animal, a found Food, and a found Pro- pofition, agreeing in this, that they have a common Deno- mination, but the Reafon or Quality whereon the Denomi- nation is founded, different5 are faid to have an 'Analogy, or to be analogous. Accordingly, Analogous Things are defined to be fuch as have a common Same, but the Thing immediately figni- fhed by that common Name, different; yet with fome Cor- refpondence or Relation difcernible therein. See GENERAL Term. Philofophers ufually diflinguifh three Kinds of .4nalogy, viz.-of Inequality, where t e Reafon of the common De- nomination is the fame in Nature, but not in Degree or Order: In which Senfe, Animal is analogous to Man, and i Brute.-Of Atfributio&; where, tho the Reafon of the r common Name be the fame, there is a difference in its ha- . bitude or refpeat thereto: In which Senfe, Healthy is analo- f gous both to a Man, and an Exercife.-Of Proportiona- lity; where, tho the Reafons of the common Name do really differ, yet they bear fome proportion to each other: In this Senfe, the Gills of Fifhes are faid to be analogous to the Lungs in terrefirial Animals: and thus, the m and Q the UnderJfanding are faid to bear an Analogy Ireach d other. ANALOGISM, ANALOGISMUS, in Logick, an Argu. I1 ment from the Caufe to the Effect. See CAUSE, wC. I ANALY. 11 I I I I __ . I I ,A N' A'
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