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Chambers, Ephraim, 1680 (ca.)-1740 / Cyclopædia, or, An universal dictionary of arts and sciences : containing the definitions of the terms, and accounts of the things signify'd thereby, in the several arts, both liberal and mechanical, and the several sciences, human and divine : the figures, kinds, properties, productions, preparations, and uses, of things natural and artificial : the rise, progress, and state of things ecclesiastical, civil, military, and commercial : with the several systems, sects, opinions, &c : among philosophers, divines, mathematicians, physicians, antiquaries, criticks, &c : the whole intended as a course of antient and modern learning

Ærugo - Algorithm,   pp. 41-60 ff. PDF (19.2 MB)

Page 42

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A:TIOLOGY, .&TIOLOGIA, a Rationale, or Difcourfe
pf the Caule of a Difeafe. See DISEASE.
In this Senfe, we fay, the .Etiolcgy of the Small Pox, of
the Hydrophobia, of the Gout, the Dropfy, Wic. See HY-
The Word is compofunded of the Greek w7m, Catfe, and
Aobet, Sermo,  i/rcourfe.
£ETITES, in Natural Hiflory, the Eagle-Stone. See EA-
The .Ektites, or lapis .tites, is a kind of Stone, vulgar-
ly faid to be found in the Eagle's Nedi; but this, as well
as many of the Virtues afcrib'd to it, feem to be fabulous.
_'It is found under ground in feveral Parts s Near Vreves
in France, one can Icarce dig a few Feet, without finding
confiderable Strata or Beds hereof.
'Tis ufually hollow, aud has a kind of Core or Kernel in
it, which, upon fhaking, rattles: Some have two, and others
three fuch Cores.
It is found of various Forms, and Sizes; but its Texture
or Confifltence is pretty uniform ; confi ing of two or three
Lays or Coats of a Matter refembling baked Earth : Efpe-
cially the innermoff.-They are originally foft, and of the
Colour of yellow Oker.
Diofcorides fays, it is of ufe in discovering a Thief; for
by mixing it with his Meat, he'll be unable to fwallow it.-
Mattbiolus informs us, that Birds of Prey never hatch their
young without this Stone; and that they feek it as far as
the Indies.
The Jfe now made of the Stone, is to aflfif Women in
Labour ; to which end, they fallen it about the Knee: it
being a Tradition, that according as it is applied above or
below the Matrix, it has the Faculty of retaining or exclu-
ding the Child. See DELIVERY.
Hence, it is fometimes direated to be bore about the Arm
to prevent Abortion. See ABORTION.
The Word is form'd of the Greek aeTo~, A-quila, Eagle.
AFFECTION, AFFECTIO, in Phyficks, a Quality or Pro-
perty of fome natural Being.  See QUALITY, and PRo-
The Schoolmen define Affelion an Attribute proper to
any Being, arifing from the Eflrence thereof. See ATTRI-
X4J/ffion- are diflinguilh'd into thofe of Body, and thofe
of the Alind.
AFFECTIONS Of Body, are certain Modifications thereof;
occafioned or induced by Motion; in Virtue whereof, the
Body comes to be fo and fo difpofed. See BODY, MATTER,
Thefe are Subdivided into Primary; as, Quiantity, Fi-
,gure, Motion, Place, kuality, and Vime: and Secondary, as
DivifbiliVv, Continuity, I penetrability, Regularity, Healtb,
Strength, &c. See each under its proper Article.
AFFECTIONS of Mind, are what we more ufually call
Paflions. See PASSION.
Mecbanical AFFECTIONS. See MEC11ANICAL Xffeftion.
AFFECTION is peculiarly ufed in Medicine, for a morbid or
disorderly State of a Part.-Thus, we fay, fuch a Part of
the Body is affetfed, i. e. indifpofed, or feized with a Dif-
eafe. See DISEASE,
The Sick are frequently miflaken as to the Place affe~ted,
by means of the Confent between the feveral Parts, which
makes a Diforder in one Part be felt in another. See CON-
Hyjferical AFFECTION, EeC.S  ce  HYSTERIC, eC.
AFFECTION is fomeimesalfo ufed inaLegal Senfe, for the
afligning, making over, pawning, or mortgaging a thing, to
alfure the Payment of a Sum of Money, or the Difcharge of
fome other Duty or Service.-His Effeas were all affefted to
his Creditors.-The Revenues of fuch a Benefice, of fuch an
H1ofpizal, are affecied to the Payment of Penfions, to the
Support of Orphans.-There are certain Duties and Privi-
leges affeded to certain Offices, Cc.
AFFEERORS, AFFERATORES, in Law, are thofe ap-
pointed in Court-Leets, upon Oath, to fettle and moderate
the Fines of fuch as have committed Faults arbitrarily pu-
niifhable, or which have no exprefs Penalty fet down by
Statute. See FINE, SC.
The Word is form'd of the French Afier, to affirm; by
reafon thofe appointed to this Office, do affirm upon their
Oaths, what Penalty they think in Confcience the Offcnder
bath deferved.
Kitchin joins the three Words as Synonymas; 4fidati,
Amerciatares, Affrares. Rradfon has Affidari Mulierem, to
be betrothed to a Woman.-In the Cuflomary of Normandy
the Word .4jfevre, is render'd by the Latin Interpreter
lqaxare, to fet the Price of a thing; as Eflimare, mdi-
,are, &c.
AFFERI, in Law. See AVERI A.
AFFIANCE, in Law, the plighting of Troth, between a
Man and a Woman; upon an Agreement of Marriage to be
had between 'em. See MaaRIXAGE, and AFFINITY.
AFFIDATIO fDominoram, an Oath taken 'by tt
in Parliament; thus called in the hpt. arl Hen. I
Tenant by Fealty: Alfo a Retainer. See TENA
Affidati non proprie Vaffii  t   qfrd f1
qui in alicujus fidem W clientelam funt recepti, r
dati di~i. Laurentii Amalthaa.  ./, datio aci/
mutua fidelitatis con nexione, tam in fpooliis, q
V;/ P FJt6AV  LFV. isrJ ae £1iLUXA Ce> 711
tata, non eft hAeres. MS.                       A!1ari
AFFIDAVIT, an Oath in Writing, fworn before fome
Perfon who hath Authority to take fuch Oath; and trMade
ufe of, and read in Court, upon Motions, but not uponrTrials.
In the Court of Chancery is an A5davit Office; under the
Direaion of a Mafler. See CHANCERY, EC.
AFFINAGE, is fometimes ufed in antient Law-Books,
LtV - .t.. 1- ' .L VtIGIaW. U.G .,..ANINU.
AFFINITY, AFFINITAS, an Alliance, or Relation made
between two Families, by Marriage. See ALLIANCE, and
In this Senfe, the Word hands contradiflinguifl'd to Con.
fanguinity; which is a Relation by Blood. See CoNsAN-
In the Mofaical Law, there are feveral Degrees of Afi-
nity, wherein Marriage is exprefly prohibited; which yet
feem not at all prohibited by the Law of Nature.--Thus,
Levit. C. XVIII. ver. i6. a Man was forbid to marry his
Brother's Widow, unlefs he died without Iffue ; in which
Cafe, it became enjoined as a Duty. So it was forbid to
marry his Wife's Sifter, while fhe was living, v. 18. which
was not forbidden before the Law, as appears from the in.
fiance of Yacob.
The antient Roman Law is filent on this Head, and
Papinian is the firfl who mentions it; on occafion of the
Marriage of Garacalla.-The Lawyers who came after him,
flrerch'd the Bonds of Afinity fo far, that they plac'd Adop-
tion on the fame Foot with Nature. See ADOFTION.
Affinity, according to the modern Canonifts, renders Mar.
riage unlawful to the fourth -Generation, inclufive: But this
is to be underifood of dired 49;nity; and not of that which
is fecondary, or collateral.-4ffis mei affinis, non eJlffitnis
It is further to be obferv'd, that this Impediment of Mat.
riage, does not only follow an ffinity contrated by lawful
Matrimony, but alfo that contradted by a criminal Con-
merce ; with this difference, that this laft does not extend
beyond the fecond Generation; whereas the other, as has
been obferv'd, reaches to the fourth.  See ADULTERY,
The Canonifts diflinguifh three Species of 4f5nity.-
The firfi, that contra~ed between the Husband and the Re-
lations by Blood of his Wife; and between the Wife, and
the Relations by Blood of her Husband. The fecond, be-
tween the Husband, and thofe related to his Wife by Mat-
riage; and the Wife, and thofe fo related to her Husband.
The third, between the Husband, and the Relations of his
Wife's Relations; and the Wife, and the Relations of her
Husband's Relations.-By the IVth Council of the Lateran,
held in 1z13, it was decreed, That none but the firm Kind
was any real AfFnity; the reff being mere Refinements,
which ought to be fet afide. Tit. de Copfang. & Affin.
The Degrees are reckon'd after the fame manner in 4/
fiity, as in Confanguinity; and therefore differently in the
Canon Law from what they are in the Civil Law. See IE-
The Word is form'd of the Latin A4ffinis, Neighbour;
of ad, and finis, Boundary, Limit.
The Romanifts talk of a Spiritual Afinity, contraed by
the Sacrament of Baptifm and Confirmation.    In that
Church, a God-father may not contraal Marriage with his
WILLIVUL 4n "1JIpeniation.  bee U(OD-FAT
AFFIRM, in Law.-To 16firm, fignifes to ratify, or
firm a former Law, or Judgment.-In the like Senif
the Subf{antive Afirmance ufed. See AFFIRMATION.
AFFIR14ATION, AFFIRMATIO, a pofitive Propofi
aljedging the Truth of Something. See PROPOSITION,
Affirmation is defined by the Logicians, an A&  whe
we attribute one Idea to another; as fuppofing it to bql
or agree thereto.-As when, conceiving Perfudion to a
to the Deity, we fay, God is perfeca. See ATTRIBU'
This, on other Occafions, is called Enunciation, Gom
tion, 7udging, &c.   See ENUNCIATION, COMFOSIT
AFFIRMATION iS alfo ufed in Grammar, by fome
Refiners upon that Art, for what is ufually call'd a Verb
regard the Office of that Part of Speech, is to exprefs'
we affirm, or attribute to any Subje&. See VERB.

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