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Chambers, Ephraim, 1680 (ca.)-1740 / Cyclopædia, or, An universal dictionary of arts and sciences : containing the definitions of the terms, and accounts of the things signify'd thereby, in the several arts, both liberal and mechanical, and the several sciences, human and divine : the figures, kinds, properties, productions, preparations, and uses, of things natural and artificial : the rise, progress, and state of things ecclesiastical, civil, military, and commercial : with the several systems, sects, opinions, &c : among philosophers, divines, mathematicians, physicians, antiquaries, criticks, &c : the whole intended as a course of antient and modern learning

A - accumulation,   pp. 1-20 PDF (18.6 MB)

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relating to the Prophecies. See TYpEt  pPtoiutcY; fC.
On many Occafions, a Man finds it expedient to tranflate
by Accommodation: Thus, the Word Librarius, Scrivener,
may be tranflated, by Accommodation, a Printer; as it ori-
ginally fignifes thofe who made it their Bufinefs to furnifh
Copies or Books, before the Invention of Printing.
ACCOMMODATION, isalfoufed for an amicableAgreement,
or Compofition between the two contending Parties.-
T:he Procefs is grown fo intricate and perplex'd, that there
is no Hopes of getting out of it but by an Accommodation.
Accommodations are frequently effeEted by means of Corn-
promife and Arbitration. See COMrROMi5E, and ARBI-
ACCOMPANYMENT, fomething attending, or added
as a Circumrfance to, another; either by way of Ornament,
or for the fake of Symmetry, or the like. See CIRCUM-
The Mufick, in Dramatic Performances, Should only be
a fimple Accompavyment.-The Organifis Sometimes apply
the Word to feveral Pipes which they occaf onally touch to
accompany the Treble; as the Drone, Flute, Tc.
In Heraldry, the Accompanyments are all fuch things as
are applied about the Shield, by way of Ornament; as the
WCe., Mlantlig, Supporters, &c. See ESCUTCHEON,SSHIELD,
A Thing is alfo faid to be accomipanied, acompagne, when
there are feveral Bearings or Figures about Come one prin-
cipal one ; as a Salteer, Bend, Fefs, Chevron, or the like.
ACCOMPLICE, Complice, one that has a hand in a
Bufinefs; or is privy in the fame Defign or Crime with ano-
ACCOMPLISHMENT, the entire Execution, Atchieve-
ment, or fulfilling of fomething propos'd, or undertaken.
The Accompli/Tment of the Prophecies of the Old Tef-
tament, in the Perfon of our Saviour, is the great Mark of
his being the Meffiah. See PROimECY.
There are two ways of accomplifhing a Prophecy; di-
ref1ly, and by Accommodation. See ACCOMMODATION.
The Reverend Mr. Sykes has a particular Inquiry into
the Meaning of thofe Words us'd by the Evangeliti, I'lhat
it might be fulfill'd, or accomplished, which 'was fpoke by
the Prophets: where he Chews, that the Word Tm.pi,
fulfll'd, does not necefarily refer to a Prediaion of a fu-
ture Event accompl/h'd; but frequently a mere Accommo-
dation of Words, borrow'd from Come other Author, and
accommodated to the prefent Occafion. See TYPE.
ACCORD, in Mufck, is more ufually call'd Concord. See
The Word Accord is French, form'd, according to Come,
from the Latin ad cor; but others, with more probability,
derive it from the French Corde, a String, or Cord ; on ac-
count of the agreeable Union between the Sounds of two
Strings firuck at the fame time. See CHORD.
Whence alfo fome of the Confonances in Mufick come to
be called 7'etrachord, Hexachord, &c. which are a fourth,
and a fixth. See TETRACHORD, SC.
M. Carre, in the Memoirs of the Royal Academy of Sci-
ences, lays down a new general Propofition, of the Propor-
tion which Cylinders are to have, in order to form the Ac-
cords or Confonances of Mufick. And it is this-That the
folid Cylinders, whofe Sounds yield thofe Accords, are in a
triplicate and inverfe Ratio of that of the Numbers which
exprefs the fame Accords.
Suppofe, e. g. two Cylinders, the Diameters of whofe
Bafes and Lengths, are as 3 to 2; 'Tis evident their Solidi-
ties will be in the Ratio of 27 to 8, which is the triplicate
Ratio of 3 to a: We fay, that the Sounds of thofe two Cy-
linders will produce a Fifth, which is exprefs'd by thofe Num-
bers; and that the biggell and longelt will yield the grave
Sound, and the fmalleft the acute one.-And the like of all
ACCORD, in Law, is an Agreement between two, at the
leaff, to fatisfy an Offence that the one hath committed
againfi the other; whether it be a Trefpafs, or fuch like
thing, for which he hath agreed to fatisfy him.-This, if
executed, becomes a good Bar in Law to any Suit to be
brought for the fame Matter.
ACCOUNT, or ACCOMPT, a Calculus, or Computation of
the Number of certain things. See CALCULUS, and NUMB ER.
There are various Ways of accounting; as, by Enumera-
tion, or fetting one by one ; and by the Rules of Arithme-
tick, Addition, Subtracfion, Cc. See ARITHMETIC, AD-
We account Time by *Y ears, Months, ec. The Greeks
accounted it by Olympiads; the Romans by Indiaions, Lu-
Itres, ,c. See TIME, YEAR, OLYMPIAD, SCc.-We ac-
count Diflances by Miles, Leagues, Uec. See MILE, LEcGuE,
Money of ACCOUNT, is an imaginary fort of Species, con-
trived for the facilitating and expediting the taking and
keeping of Accozurts.-Such are Pounds, Angels, &c. See
MotiLY of Account ; fee alfo POUND, WC.
AcCoUNTr is airo d Relative Term, uded in refpe& df 1
Company, or Society, when two or more Perfons have MA
ceiv'd, or disburs'd for each other; or when this has been
,done by.their Order or Commiffion. See CoMPANY, CONM
ACCOUNT, or ACCOUNTS, is alfo ufed colleaively, for the
feveral Books or Regiflers which Merchants keep of their
Affairs, and Negotiations. . See Boox-xEzPING, L:C.
Hence, to make out an Account; to pafs one's Accounts,
&c.-   Bankrupts are oblig'd to furrender their Accoruis.
ACCOUNT, or ACCOMPT, in a Legal Senfe, is a particular
Detail, or Enumeration deliver'd to a Court, a Judge, or
other proper Officer or Perfon, of what a Man has receiv'd
or expended on the Behalf of another, whofe Affairs he has
had the Management of-.
In the Remembiancer's Office in the Exchequer, are en-
ter'd the States of all the Acrounts concerning the King's
Revenue, for Cuflomns, Excife, Subfidies, f$c. See RE-
The great Accounts, as thofe of the Mint, Wardrobe,
Army, Navy, Tenths, &ec. are called Impreft Accounts. See
All Accounts which pafs the Remembrancer's Office, are
brought to the Office of the Clerk of the Pipe. See PiPE. ,
ACCOUNT, in Law, is particularly ufed for a Writ
which lies where an Agent, Steward, or other Perfon, who
ought to render an Account, refufes to give his Account.
Chamber of ACCOUNTS, in the French Polity, is a fove-
reign Court, of great Antiquity, wherein the Accountls rela-
ting to the King's Revenue are deliver'd in, and regifler'd.
This anfwers pretty nearly to the Court of Exchequer in
England. See EXCHXEQUER.
There are Prefidents of Accounts, Maiers of Accountsi
Corredors of Accounts, &c.
ACCOUNTANT, or ACCOMPTANT, a Perfon, or Ofli-
cer appointed to keep or make up the Accounts of a Com-
pany, Office, Court, or the like. See ACCOUNT.
There are Accountants in the Cuflomhoufe, the Excife,
Eec. See ExcisE, and CUSTOMIHOUSE.
1'h7e ACCOUNTANT-General of the Court of Chancer,
ACCOUTREMENT, an antient Term, ufed for an )fT-
billement; or a part of the Apparatus, and Furniture of
Soldier, Knight, or even a Gentleman. See HABILLEMENT.
The Word is French; form'd from the antient German,
Kzqler. - - In fome Cathedrals in France, e. g. at fBayeux,
the Name Contra is given to the Sacriflan, or Officer who
has the Care of furnilhing and fetting out the Altar, in the
Church ; call'd in Germnan Kufter, te4eJcoegs.
ACCRETION, the Growth or Increafe of an organical
Body, by the Acceflion of new Parts. See NUTRITION.
Accretion is of two Kinds; the one, confifding in an ex-
ternal Appofition of new Matter.
This is what we otherwife call,  fuxtapofztion ; and 'is
thus, Stones, Shells, Wc. are fuppofed to grow. See STONE,
and SHELL.
The other is by Come fluid Matter received into proper
Vefrels, and gradually brought to adhere or grow to the
Sides thereof.
This is what we call, Introfu/ception; and 'tis thus Plants
and Animals are nourifh'd. See PLANT, and ANIMAL;
fee alfo NUTRITION.
ACCRETION, ACCREMENT, in the Civil Law, a vague or
vacant Portion of Ground, join'd or united with Grounds
held or poffefs'd by another.-A Legacy given to two Per-
fons jointly, tam re quam verbis, falls wholly to him that
furvives the Telcator, by Right of Accretion.
Alluvion is another Species of Accretion. See ALLUVION.
ACCRUE, or ACCREW, denotes Something to fall by
way of Acceflion, or Accretion, to another. See ACCRE-
ACCUBITOR, an antient Officer of the Emperors of
Conflantinople; whofe Bufinefs was to lie near the Emperor.
The Word is Latin, form'd of the Verb Accumbo, I lie
by ; whence Accubatio, that State or Poflure of the Body
when we fit, and at the fame time lean backwards.
ACCUMULATION, the A& of heaping, or amafzing
feveral things together.-The Word is compounded of ad,
and cumulus, heap.
The Lawyers fpeak of an Accumulation of Titles; as,
when a Perton claims Lands, a Benefice, or the like, in
Virtue of feveral Titles, or Pretenfions of different Kinds;
e.g. by Death, by Refignation, lhc.
In a like Senfe, we read of Accumulative Treafon, ec.
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