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Chambers, Ephraim, 1680 (ca.)-1740 / Cyclopædia, or, An universal dictionary of arts and sciences : containing the definitions of the terms, and accounts of the things signify'd thereby, in the several arts, both liberal and mechanical, and the several sciences, human and divine : the figures, kinds, properties, productions, preparations, and uses, of things natural and artificial : the rise, progress, and state of things ecclesiastical, civil, military, and commercial : with the several systems, sects, opinions, &c : among philosophers, divines, mathematicians, physicians, antiquaries, criticks, &c : the whole intended as a course of antient and modern learning

The preface,   pp. I [i]-xxx PDF (27.2 MB)

Page vi

The1C P  h  Ee E-A C  A
T O be a little more e   xplicit-Words are the next Matter of Knowledge;
I mean, of Knowledge confidersA
as it now ftands, communicable, or capable of being tranfmitted from one
to another. We Ihould have known ma-
ny Things without Language; but it would only have been fuch Things as we
had feen or perceived our felves.
The Obfervations of others could no way have been added to our own; but every
Individual mufl have gone throe
a Courfe for himfelf, exclufive of all Advantages to, or from, Cotemporaries,
Predeceffors, or Poflerity.---'Tis evi-
dent that, in this Cafe, nothing like an Art, or Sc ience, could ever have
arofe i not even in the Mind of the moft
Sagacious Obferver: The little Syftem of Things which come immediately in
one Man's way, wou'd but have
afforded a flender Stock of Knowledge; efpecially to a Being whofe Views
were all to terminate in himfelf.
Add, that, as the chief Occafions of his Obfervation would be of the fame
kind with thofe of other Animals ; 'tis
probable his Knowledge would not have been very dilferent, whether we confider
its Quantity or Quality.
'Tis confefs'd that all our Knowledge, in its Origin, is no other than Senfe;
whelc it Ihould follow, that
one Being has no natural Advantage over another in its Dilpofition for Knowledge,
other than what it has in
the fuperior Number, Extent, or Acutenefs of its Senfes.
'T I S, in effe&, to Language that we are chiefly indebted for what we
call Science. By means hereof our
Ideas and Notices, tho things in their own nature merely perfonal, and adapted
only to private ufe ; are
extended to others, to improve their ftock: and thus, by a kind of fecond
Senfe, we get Perceptions of the
Objeffs that are perceived by all Mankind; and are prefent, as it were by
proxy, to things at all Diftances
from us: We hear Sounds made a thoufand Years ago, and fee Things that pafs
a thoufand Miles off. If
the Eagle really fees, the Raven fmells, and the Hare hears, further and
better than Man ; their Senfe, at
beft, is but narrow, in comparison of ours, which is extended, by the Artifice
of Language, over the whole
Globe.  They fee with their own Eyes only; we with thofe of the whole Species.----In
efted, by Language,
we are upon much the fame footing, in refpe&t of Knowledge, as if each
individual had the natural Senfe of
a thoufand: an Acceffion which alone mult have fet us far above any other
Animals. But at the fame time,
this very acceffion of a multitude of Ideas more than naturally belong'd
to us, mutt have been in great
meafure ufelefs ; without certain other Faculties of ordering and arranging
'em ; of abftra&ing, or making
one a Reprefentative of a Number ; of comparing 'em together, in order to
learn their Relations ; and of
compounding, combining 'em, &c. to make 'em act jointly.  The Effe&
hereof is what we call Difcourjing
and Philofophizing: And hence arife Do1rines, theories, &c.
E V E R Y Word is fuppofed to fRand for fome Part, or Point of Knowledge;
fuch as do not, have no
bufinefs in the Language, and ought of Confequence to be thrown out of doors.
It follows, that the Vo-
cabulary of any Language, is reprefentative of the feveral Notices of the
People among whom it obtains
I mean of the primary or abfolute Notices; for by the Conftrudion of thefe
Words with one another, a
new Set of fecundary or relative Notices are exprefs'd.---To enter better
into this, it is to be obferv'd, that
the feveral Objeffs of our Senfes, with that other Set of Things analogous
hereto, the proper Objec'ts of the
Imagination, are represented by fixed Names i;  denoting, fome of 'em , Individuals
t ;  others, Kinds t, &c.
Now, thefe, which make the firft or fundamental Part of a Language, 'tis
obvious, are no other than a Re-
prefentation of the Works of Nature, as-they exilt in a kind of f ill Life,
or in a State of Independency
one upon another. But in regard we do not confider the Creation as thus quiefcent,
but obferve a great
number of Mutations arife in the Things we are converfant among; we are hence
put under a neceflity of
framing another Set of Words, to exprefs thefe Variations, and the Aaftions
to which they are owing, with
the feveral Circumfiances and Modifications thereof 11.  By this means, Nature
is remov'd out of her dormant
Conrifitution, and fh wn in Adtion; and thus may occafional Defcriptions
be framed, accommodate to the
prefent State of Things.
HE N C E arife two Kinds of Knowledge; the one abjolute, including the ftanding
Phxrnornena: the other
relative, or occafional, including what is done, or paffes, with regard to
them.  The former is in fom e Senfe
permanent; the latter merely tranfient, or hiflorical. The firf: is held
forth, as already obferved, in the Voca-
bulary: the f-cond vague, and uncircumfcrib'd by any Bounds; being what fills
all the other Books extant.
In effedt , this laft , being in fome meafure cafual, may be faid to be infinite:
for that every new Cafe,
i. e. every new Application and Combination of the former, furnilhes a new
IN  the wide Field of Knowledge, appear fome Parts which have been more.cultivated
than the rell; either
on account of the Goodnefs of tle Soil, and its eafy Tillage, or by reafon
they have fallen under the Hands
of induftrious and able Husbandmen. Thefe Spots, being regularly laid out
and planted, and conveniently
circumfcrib'd or fenced round, make what we call the A rti, and Siences:
And to thefe have the Labours, and
Endeavours of the Men of Curiofity and Learning in all Ages, been chiefly
confin'd.  Their Bounds have
been enlarg'd from time to time, and new Acquifitions made from the adjoining
Wafte ; but 11111 the Space
The Operations of Planting, Tranfplanting, Replanting, Watering.
Engrafting, Inoculating, Pruning, Pinching, Variegating, &c.  Pre-
venting Difeafies, Blightt, Gum, &c. The UJfe and Ordering of a
Hot-bed, Green-houfe, Seminary, Nurfery, Garden, Vineyard, &c. Their
Expofure, walls, Horizontal Shelter, &c. Walks, Grafs.Plot, Terrace,
Ptrncunx, Parterre, &C.
43 M A N A G E, including the Confideration of H o R s E S;
their Age Colour, Teeth, Hoof, Star, &c. Paces, as Amble, Gallop,
&c.    Airs, as Volt, Demivolt, curvet, Capriole, &c.   Aid, Cor-
rerion, Hand, Bit, &c.  saddle, Shoe, Bridle, &c.    Difeafes, as
Halting, Farcy, Staggers, Scratches, rello'ws, &c.  Operations, as
Rowelling, Docking, Gelding, &c.     nHawk, Hawking, Hood, &c.
Reclaiming, Cig, caling, &C. Pip, Fi-anders, &c.-Hound, Hunting,
&C. Rut, Stalking, Birdlime, Tramel-net, Bat-fowling, &c&.
Fifi, FiJ/ing, FifJhery, &c. Axgling, Hook, Rod, Float, &C. Bait,
,Fly, Huxing, &C.
44 G R.  A M M A R, or the Confideration of L A N G U A G E; as
Englib, Latin, Greek, Hebrew, French, &c. Their Dialeei, idiom,
patavinity, &c. Matter thereof, Letter; Vowel, Con/onant, Diphthong,
Afrirate, Chatraltcer. Symbol, Hieroglyphic, &c. Syllable, Particle,
WordW; Kinds hereof, Noun. Pronoun, Verb, &c. Sbflantive,      Ad-
jeqIive &c. Their Confcrutlion, Concord, Regimen, &c. In Cafe, No-
minative, Genitive, &c. Gender, Mafculine, &c. Number, Perfon, Mood,
Tenfe, &c.  Into sentence, Phrafe, Period, &c.8  Diftinguifh'd by
Accent, Comma, &c. Deliveb'd by Pronunciation, Writing, orthrgra-
phy, &C.
N ount.
* AprUlativ#s.
45RHETORIC) or the Mean1S Of PERSUASION; as
Invention, Aniploflcation, Topic, Place, Argument.  P0aons, Manners,
&c.    Difpofition, Exordium, Narration, Confirmation, Peroration,
&c. Elocution, sublime, Style, Numbers, &c.     Figures, as Excla
mation, Pleonafm, Epiphonema, Apofirophe, Profopopocia, Antithefis, &C.
Tropesp as Metaphor, Allegocy, Synecdoche, Sarcafm, Hyperbole, ca-
tachrejis, &c. Aftion, Gejiure, Moootonia, &C. Compofitions, as
Oration, Declamation, Panegyric, &c. Parable, Effay, Dialogue, Hir-
toryj, &C.
46 H E R A  L  D   R Y, or the Confideration of C o  A T S ; confift-
ing of Field, Charge, Figure, &c. as Croff, Chevron, Bend, Pale, &C.
with Abatement, Difi rence, 9_yartering, &c.  Compofed of Colomr,
Metals, Points, &C. Bore on Eficutcheon, shield, &c. Accompanied
with .S4pporters, Helmet, CreJ i, Mantling, Motto, &c.  Device, Em.
blem, Rebus, Enigma, &c. And defcribed by Blazon.
47 P 0 ET R Y, incl uding the Confideration   of V E; R s E  its
Meafure, Feet,  kantitv, &c. as Hexameter, Alexandrine, Spondee,
Iambic, &c. Rhyme, SSanna, &c. Compofitions, as Epigram, Ele-
gy, Song, Madrilal,  Hymn,  Pin, ode, Pindaric, &c.  Eclogue, Satir,
Georgic, &c.   Anagram, Acroelic, Burlefoue, Macaronic, Leonine,
Troubadour, &c.    Dramatic, as Tragedy, Comedy, Hilaro-tra gedia,
Farce, &c.  Parts thereof, At, Scene, Protaeis, fpitta, Clsafirophe,
&c. Circumilances, Prologue, Epilogue, Soliloquy, Chorus, &c. Laws,
Unity, AAion, &c.    Epic, its Fablee nero, machines, &c. Charac-
ters, manners, Sentiments, &c. Perfonification, Propoitio, ivocation,
Epifide, &c .  Iliad, odyfe, Rhapfody, &c.
f Verbs, Parf;cpipes, Adverbs, &c.
3                                             of~~~~~~o
It Proper .Wgimes.

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