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Chambers, Ephraim, 1680 (ca.)-1740 / Cyclopædia, or, An universal dictionary of arts and sciences : containing the definitions of the terms, and accounts of the things signify'd thereby, in the several arts, both liberal and mechanical, and the several sciences, human and divine : the figures, kinds, properties, productions, preparations, and uses, of things natural and artificial : the rise, progress, and state of things ecclesiastical, civil, military, and commercial : with the several systems, sects, opinions, &c : among philosophers, divines, mathematicians, physicians, antiquaries, criticks, &c : the whole intended as a course of antient and modern learning

Rectified - Religion,   pp. 971-990 PDF (18.8 MB)

Page 971

(97' )
owing Q~antity of each be taken, we lhall ave the Length of
iii Arch AC.
IRECIFIED SpiAts      &c. are fuch as have undergone the
Operation of .Retfcatiun, or have been diftill'd over and over,
o Operate from them any heterogeneous Matter, which might
~Axle arifen with them in the former Diftillations.  See RICTI-
tHence we fayi Spirit of Aite twice tea#Fedj thrice redified, &c.
'Tis the Re6ification that makes the Difference between Bran-
dy and redified Spirits of Wine. See BRANDY.
.6' RECTIFIER, in Navigation, is an Inftrument ufed for de.
cerming the Variation of the Compafs, in order to re7ifj the
Ships Courfe, &c. See VARIATION and COURSE.
It confifts of two Circles, either laid upon, or let into one an-
other, and lo faftened together in their Centres that, they repe-
.at, two Compaffis, the one fixed, the other moveable; each di-
vided into 32 Points of the Compafs, and 360 Degrees, and
Numbered both vAys, from the North and the South, - ending
=t the Eaft and Weft in 9o Degrees.
The fixed Compafs reprefents theHorizon, in which the North,
<nd all the other Points are liable to Variation.
'    Ithe Centre of the moveable Compafs is faftened a Silk
toread, long enough to reach the outfide of the fixed Compafs.
<lut if the Inftrurment be made of Wood, an Index is ufed inftead
i  the Thread. See COMPASS.
RECTIFYING of the Globe, or Sphere, is a previous adjuffing
d preparing of the Globe or Sphere, for the Solution of Pro-
lEms, &e.
t'is done by bringing the Sun's Place in the Ecliptic on the
Globe, to the Graduated Side of the Brafs Meridian; elevating
Fe Pole above the Horizon, as much as is the Latitude of the
lace; fitting the Hour Index exatly to twelve at Noon; and
ixewing the Quadrant of Altitude, (if there be Occafion) to the
All this is comprehended under the Term, Redify the
When this is 'done, the Celeflial Globe represents the true Po-
iure of the Heavens, for the Noon of that Day it is retified
*r. See GLOBE and SPHERE.
RECTILINEARri&ht-Jized, in Geometry, is applied to Fi-
lures whore Perimeter co ts of right Lines.  See FIGURE,
IWt~phy, refers either to the a& of judging, or of willing; and
*brefore whatever comes under the Denomination of Reditmde,
>k either what is true, or what is good: Thefe being the only Ob-
s   about which the Mind exercises its two Faculties of Judg-
ng and Wiling ,.,See TRUTH and GOOD.
The Reoiude of th:eMnd, confidered as itfidges, i. e. of the
1aculty of Judgment, confifts in its Agreement and Conformi-
t to the Naturm and Reafon of things; in its determining and
deciding about them, according to what their Coniftitutions, Pro-
*erties, Ufes, &c. really are. See JUDGMENT. See alfo Lo-
.. The R.6itude of the Mind, considered as it wills, call'd alfo
Aforal Reoitude, or Uprightnefi, confifts in the choofing and pur-
kfiing of thofe things which the Mind, upon due Inquiry and At-
tetition, clearly perceives to be Good; and avoiding thofe that
ire Evil. See WLL.
RECIITUDINES, in Law, Rights or legal Dues, belong-
ine either to God or Man.
RECTO, in Law, a Writ udually call'd a Writ of Right; of
4kh a Nature, as that whereas other Writs in real Aftions are
only to recover the Poffeffion of the Lands, &c. in Queftion,
1* by the Plaintiff or his Anceftor; This Aims to recover both
the Seifim thus loft, and the Property of the thing; fo that both
Rights are here pleaded together; that of Property, and that of
* Toflflion. See PROPERTY and POSSESSION.
If a Man lofe his Caufe upon this Writ, he is without all Re-
maedy. See RIGHT.
There are two Kinds of this Writ: Reaum patens, a Writ of
xight Patent; and Reelum claufum, a Writ of Right Clofe.
The firif is fo called, becaufe fent open.-It lies only for him
that hath Fee-fimple in the Lands fued for.
The Writ of Right Clofe. is directed to the Lord of antient
flemefn, and lies for thofe who hold their Lands and Tene-
ments by Charter, in Fee-fimple, or in Fee-Tail, or for Term
of Life, or in Dower, if they be ejeated out of fuch Lands or
In (uch Cafe a Man or his Heirs may fue out the Writ of
Right Clofe, diredked to the Lord of antient Demefth com-
tuanding him to do him Right in his Court.
This is alfo call'd breve parvum de Reao.
Indeed, the Writ of Right Patent is extended in Pra&ice be-
yond its original Intention: For a Writ of Right of Dower,
which lies for the Tenant in Dower, is Patent; and fo in feveral
other Cfes. Fitzberb.
RECTO de Dote, a Writ of Right of Dower, which lies Or a
Woman that has received Part of her Dower, and proceeds to
demrand the ,etmnant in the fame Place, agpinft the Heir.  See
RECTO de Ddeie ush nihil haabet, is a Writ of Right which lies
in Cafe where the Husband having divers Lands and Tenementsx
has affured no Dower to his Wife; and fhe is thereby driven to
fue for her Thirds againft theHeir, or his Guardian.
RECTO de rationabili parte, a Writ that lies between Privice
of Blood, as Brothers in Gavel-Kind, or Sifters, or other Co-
parceners, as Nephews and Nieces; and for Land in Fee-
Thus, if a Man leafe his Land fot Life, and afterwards dye,
leaving Iffue two Daughters, and after, the Tenant for Life like-
wife dies; the one Sifter entering on all the Land, and fo de-
forcing the other, the Sifter fo deforced fhall have this Writ to
recover her Part.
Rkco u Iando Dominrs remifitJ a Writ of Right, which lies in
Cafe where Lands or Tenements in the Seigniory of any Lord,
are in Demand by a Writ of Right.
It the Lord hold no Court; or at the Prayer of the Deman-
dant or Tenant, fend his Writ to the King's Court, to put the
Caufe thither for that time; this Writ iffues for the other Party,
and has its Name from the Words comprised, which is the true
Occafion thereof.
RECTO de advocatione Ecclefie, a Writ of Right, lying where
a Man has Right of Advowfon, and the Incumbent dying, a
Stranger prefents his Clerk to the Church; and he not having
brought his Action of Puare Ivpedt nor darreim Prefentment
within fix Months, has fufetred the Stranger to ufurp upon
RECTO de Cvjaoia Terre &  Ieeedi;, a Writ which as to Lands
holden in Capite, or by Knights Service, is become ufelefs by
the Stat. i2 Car. II. But not where there is a Guardian in So-
cage, or appointed by the laft Will of the Anceflor.
ECTo fur Difilaimer, a Writ which lies where the Lord, in
the Court of Common-Pleas does avow upon his Tenant, and
the Tenant difclaims to hold of him; upon which Dilclaimer he
Ihall have this Writ.
RECTOR, of a Parifh, the Parfon; or he who has the Charge
or Cure of a Parifh Church. See PARSON.
If the pr.edial Tythes of the Parifh be Impropriated, i. e. in
Lay Hands, inflead of Refeor, the Parfon is call'd Vicar. See
In England are reckoned 3 845 Re~tories. See PARISH.
The Name Redor denotes him Governour, or Ruler, quia
tantum 'As i Eccleia Parochiali habet, Muantum Prelatms in Ec-
ckfia Collegiata. See PARSONAGE.
RECTOR, is alfo the chief Eletive Officer in feveral Foreign
Univerfities; particularly that of Paris. See UNIVERSITY.i
The Relor is chofen a-frelh every three Months: Antiently he
was chofe every fix Weeks. The Alteration was made by the
Legate of Pope Nicholas III. in 1278.  He is chofe out of the
Faculty of Arts.
While that Faculty, and the Faculty of Theology were uni-
ted, one Officer had the Infpecion of both, under the Title ot
Chancellor: Upon their Divifion, a Reslor was created. He makes
a foleran Proceffion four times a Year, attended by the Doators,
Batchellors, &c. in their Formalities.
RECTOR is alfo ufed in feveral Convents for the Superior, or
Officer who governs the Houfe. See SUPERIOR.
The Jefuits ufe it for the Superiors in fuch of their Houfes, as
are either Seminaries, orColleges. See JESUIT, COLLEGE, SE-
RECTORY, RECTORATE, a Parifh-Church, Parfonage, or
Spiritual Living, with all its Rights, Glebes, and Tithes. See
RECTUM, in our old Law-Writers, is alfo ufed for a Trial or
Commune Rellum, for a Trial at Law, or in the common
Courfe of Law.-Stare ad Rel'm, denotes to fland a Tria.-.
Redum rogare, to petition the Judge to do right.
RECTUM, in Anatomy. is the laft of the large Inteftines. See
It is thus call'd, becaufe it paffes ftraight from the Os Sacrem
to the A4nus; without making any turns or Circumvolutions, as
all the other Guts do.
Its length is ufually about a Hands-breadth; and its Capacity,
the thickness of three Fingers.
Its upper Part is tied faft to the Offa Sacrum, and Cocc ygis by
means of the Peritoneum; and in Men to the Neck of the Blad-
der, in Women to the Vagina Uteri: Its lower end, the Anus, is
furnifhed with three Mufcles. See ANUS.
The firft, the Sphinder Ani ferving to Shut it, and prevent
the Excrements from palling out Involuntarily.  See SPHINC-
The other two, the Ievatores Ani, which ferve to rairc or pun
back the Rellum after the Expulfion of the Excrements; which
efpecially after hard Stools, is apt to be too far protruded.  See
RECTUS, in Anatomy, a Name common to feveral Mufcles;
on account of the ftraightnefs of their Courfe from their Origin
to their Infertion; having particularDenominations from theParts
to which they minifter: As the Reaus.Abdominis, Ream   Femorih
ReAS     Capitis Lateralis, Major Externus,-Aifnor Exterus,_-
11I                          .Majve

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