Chambers, Ephraim, 1680 (ca.)-1740 / Cyclopædia, or, An universal dictionary of arts and sciences : containing the definitions of the terms, and accounts of the things signify'd thereby, in the several arts, both liberal and mechanical, and the several sciences, human and divine : the figures, kinds, properties, productions, preparations, and uses, of things natural and artificial : the rise, progress, and state of things ecclesiastical, civil, military, and commercial : with the several systems, sects, opinions, &c : among philosophers, divines, mathematicians, physicians, antiquaries, criticks, &c : the whole intended as a course of antient and modern learning
Q - Quoyl, pp. 923-944 PDF (20.0 MB)
QUA ( 923 ) 0QUA Q A Confonant, and the fixteenth Letter of the Alphabet. See LETTER and ALPHABET. The Q2has this peculiar to it, that 'cis always follow'd By an U. See U. The ., is form'd from the Hebrew p, Kophl which moft other Languages have borrow'd; tho' forne of them have reje~led it again, particularly the Greeks, who now only retain it as a Numeral Charater. In effeai, there is that refemblance between the Z and C, in fome Languages, and K in others; that many Gram- marians, in imitation of the Greeks, banifh the Jt as a fuperfluous Letter. Tapias even affirms, that all the Latin Words now wrote with a .Q, were wrote among the antient Romans with . a C: But we want better Authorities. For tho' that may hold in many cafes, infomuch that we fill write indiffe- rently 4uuJ or cur, cum or quum, quotidie or cotidie, Wc. Yet does it not thence thence follow, that they wrote cis, cA, cid; for quis, qua, quid---What Infcriptions autho- rize fuch a reading ? Far from this the Antients fometimes fubilituted . for C; and wrote quojus, quos, for cujus, cus, dc. l7Arro, however, and fome other Grammarians, as we are told by Cenforinus, Wc. would never ufe the A. The truth is, its Ufe or Difufe feems to have been fo little fet- tled and agreed on, that the Poets ufed the R or C indiffe- rently, as befl fuited their Meafures; it being a Rule, that the .R joined the two following Vowels into one Sylla- ble; and that the C imported them to be divided. Hence it is, that Lucretius ufes cuiret for three Sylla- bles, in lieu of quiret; acua for aqua; and that Plautus tfies relicuum for reliquum; as in quod dedi datum non vel- lem relicuum non; where the cuum muft be two Syllables, otherwife the 9lrochaic Verfe will be lame of a Foot. In the French, the Sound of the 0,and K are fo near a- kin, that fome of their niceft Authors think the former might be fpared-Ramus adds, that till the Eftablifh- ment of Royal Profeffors in the Univerfity of Paris under Francis 1. they always ufed KQin the Latin the fame as in the French; pronouncing kis, kalis, kaxrtus, Lc. for quis, qualts, quantus, Wc, Some very learned Men make ,a double Letter, as well as K and X-.According to them, Q is evidently a C and U joined together-'Tis not enough that the Sound is the fame; but they fee the Traces of the C U in the Fi- gure of the 6; the Vbeing only laid obliquely -1, fo as to come within the Cavity of the C. To confirm this, they fay the Antients wrote qi, qe, qid. Tho' _og: Scaliger, Littleton, V c. think this no Proof of the Point; for in Gruter's Inscriptions, we find not only the but alfo the C, put for kQ U5 as Cintus, kuintus, ficis for fiquis, FOc. Yet no body ever imagin'd the C a double Letter. . among the Antients, was a Numeral Letter, fignify- ing 500 i as in the Verfe, Q velut -4 cum D2 quingentos vult numerare. A Dafh over it, as 6, denoted it to fignify five hundred thoufand. See A. is alfo ufed as an Abbreviature in feveral Arts- In Phyfician's Bills, PI. flands for quantum placet, or quantum vis, as much as you pleafe of a thing; q .f for quantum fifficit, or as much as is necelary. Among Mathematicians, k. E. D. fignifies quod erat de- monfjrandum, which was to be demonfirated- E. F. quod erat faciendum, which was to be done. 2. D. is alfo frequently ufed among Grammarians, We. for quaJi ditgum, as if it were faid, F.c. QUACK, in Medicine. See EMPIRIC. QUADRA, in Building, any fiquare Border, or Frame, incompaffing a Baffo-Relievo, Pannel, Painter's or other Work. The Word is alfo ufed abufively for a Frame or Border of another Form; as Round, Oval, or the like. QQUADRAGESIMA, a Term fometimes ufed for the Time of Lent; becaufe confifling of forty Days. See LENT. Hence, rome Monks are raid to lead a uyadragefimal Life; or to live on .&jadreigefimal Food al tie Year. QUADRAGESIMA SuXday, is the firil Sunday in Lent; fo call'd, becaufe it is about the fortieth Day before .~aer. lee EASTER. On the fame account, the three preceding Sundays, are cill'd kyinquagerfla, Sexagefima, and Septuagefima. See QUINQUAGESIMA, WC. QUADRAGESIMALS, denote Mid-Lent Contributions, or Oferings. See OFFERING, OBLATION, WC. It was an antient Cuflom for People to vifit their Mother- Church on Mid-Lent Sunday, and to make their Offerings at the High Altar: and the like was alfo done in Whitfun- Week - But as thefe latter Oblations, Wc. were fome- times commuted for by a Payment of Penticoftals, or Whitfiun-Farthings: See PENTICOSTALs-So were the former alfo changed into a cuflomary Payment, called &2adrage imals; fDenarii Ruadragefimales; and fometimes Ltetare erufalem, from a Hymn fo call'd, fung on that day; beginning, 5erufalem Mater omnium, &c. QUADRANGLE, in Geometry, a Quadrangular, or Quadrilateral Figure; or a Figure which has four Sides, or four Angles. See FIGURE and QUADRILATERAL. To the Clafs of Quadrangles, or kqadrangular Figures, belong the Square, Parallelogram, frapezium, Rbombus, and Rhomboides. See SQUARE,PARALLELOGRAM,RHOM- B US, &C. A Square, Uec. is a regularkiuadrangle-a Trapezium an irregular one. Quadrangular Figures are not proper for Fortification ; the Flanks and flank'd Angles being too fmall. See BAs- TION. QUADRANS, in Antiquity. See A s. QUADRANS, in our Cufloms, is the fourth part of a Penny ; or a Farthing. See PENNY and FARTIING. QUADRANT, QUADRANS, in Geometry, an Arch of a Circle, containing go Degrees, or one fourth of the entire Periphery. See ARCH and CIRCLE: See alfo DEGREE. Sometimes, alfo, the Space or Area included between this Arch and two Radii, drawn from the Center to each Extremity thereof, is call'd a kQuadrant, or more properly iuadrantal Space; as being a quarter of the entire Circle. See SECTOR. QUADRANT, is alfo a Mathematical Infirument, of great ufe in Navigation and Afironomy; for the taking of Altitudes, Eec. See ALTITUDE. The kuadrant is varioufly contrived, and furnifhed with various Apparatus, according to the various Ufes it is in- tended for; but they all have this in common, that they confifd of a Quadrant, or quarter of a Circle, whofe Limb is divided into go Degrees; that they have a Plummet fuf- pended from the Centre, and are furnilh'd with Pinngul, or Sights. The principal, mofi ufual, and moil ufeful .Quadrants, are, the Commxon or Surrveying S2iadrant, the Aftronomical Quadrant, the Iorodidical 5jadrant, Gunter's 5&uadrant, Sutton's or Collins's £t:adrant, and the Sinecal f jadrant. T'be Common or Surveying Quadrant (reprefented Tab. SURVEYING, fig. 30.) is made of Brafs, Wood, or other Matter; ufually I± or 15 Inches Radius --Its Circular Limb is divided into goQ, and each of thofe fubdivided into as many equal Parts as the Space will allow; either diago- nally, or otherwife-On one Edge, or Semidiameter, are fixed two immoveable Sights; and in the Angle, or Centre, is hung a Thread with a Plummet. To the Centre is likewife, Sometimes, fixed a Label or moveable Index, bearing two other Sights like the Index of a Telefcope-And in lieu of the immoveable Sights, is Sometimes fitted a Telefcope; tho' this more properly belongs to the Afironomical Quadranr. On the under fide, or face of the Infirument, is fitted a Ball, and Socket; by means whereof, it may be put in any pofition for ufe. Befides the Esfentials of the Quadrant, there is frequent- ly added on the face near the Centre, a kind of Comparti- ment, call'd the Queadrat, or Geometrical Square; as in the Figure-This, in fome meafure, making a diflin&t Inflru- ment of itfelf; fee its Defcription and Ufe under the Article QUADRAT. The Quadrant is to be ufed in different Situations, ac- cording to the Dimenfions to be taken --To obferve Heights and Depths, its Plane is difpofed at right Angles to the Horizon: To take horizontal Diflances, the Plane is difpofed parallel thereto. Heights and Diflances, again, may be taken two ways; viz. by means of the fixed Sights and Plummet, and by the Label.
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