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Chambers, Ephraim, 1680 (ca.)-1740 / Cyclopædia, or, An universal dictionary of arts and sciences : containing the definitions of the terms, and accounts of the things signify'd thereby, in the several arts, both liberal and mechanical, and the several sciences, human and divine : the figures, kinds, properties, productions, preparations, and uses, of things natural and artificial : the rise, progress, and state of things ecclesiastical, civil, military, and commercial : with the several systems, sects, opinions, &c : among philosophers, divines, mathematicians, physicians, antiquaries, criticks, &c : the whole intended as a course of antient and modern learning
(1728)

Murrey - Myurus,   pp. 600-612 PDF (11.6 MB)


Page 600


MUR                        (6c
the Air, which begets an Inflammation in the Blood, and
a Swelling in the 'T hroat, which foon proves Mortal, and is
communicated from one to another.
The Symptoms are generally a hanging down and fwel-
ling of the Head, rattling in the Throat, lhort Breath,
Palpitation of the Heart, Staggering, abundance of Gum
in the Eves, Ei'c. Breath hot, and Tongue fhining.
The mob remarkable Murrain we hear of, is that men-
tioned in the Phtiof. TranJf which fpread itfelf through
Switzerland, Germany, into Poland, &c.
The Contagion feem'd to propagate itfelf in form of a
blue Miff, which fell on the Grafs where theCattel grazed,
infomuch that whole Herds resurn'd home fick, and being
very dull, and forbearing their Food, moil of 'em died
away in twenty four Hours time. On diffcaion were found
large corrupted Spleens, fpbacelous and corroded Tongues,
Tic. Thofe People who manag'd them without a due re-
gard to their own Health, were infeated by 'em, and died
like the Beafis.
Some imagine it had its Rife from noxious Vapours
thrown out of the Earth in three diflin& Earthquakes per-
ceiv'd in the Neighbourhood of the Place where it began:
Tho Dr. Slare rather thinks it owing to Swarms of volatile
Infe~ls. The Antidote for the Sound, and the Medicine for
the Sick were the fame, viz. Equal Parts of Soot, Gun-
Powder, Brimtfone, and Salt, with as much Water as would
wafh it down, a Spoontul in a Dofe.
MURREY, in Heraldry, a purple Colour, call'd alfo
Sangria. See SANGUIN.
MURTHER, Homicide, the A&q of killing another with
Violence, Injuflice, and EfFufion of Blood. See HOMICIDE..
Among the number of popular Errors, is the Notion
which has obtain'd, that the dead Body would bleed in the
Prefence, orupon the Touch of the Murtherer.
The Crime of XMurtber is punifh'd with Death in almofi all
Nations. See PUNISIMENT.
In our Law, Martber has a peculiar import, fo as to de-
note a wilful and felonious killing another upon prepenfed
Malice, whether fecretly or openly; and whether EngliJZ
Man or Foreigner, living under the King's Prote&ion.
This prepenfed Malice, which makes the Effence of
Martler, is twofold ; z. Exprefs, where it may be evi-
dently proved that there was ill-will. 2. When one kil-
leth another fuddenly, he having nothing to defend himfelf,
as going over a Stile, or the like. For in fuch a Cafe, or
when a Man killeth a mere Stranger, the Law prefumeth
he had Malice againft him, or elfe that he would not do it
without any manner of Provocation.
The Word is form'd from the Saxon Mortb, which fome
will have to fignify a violent Death 5 whence the barba-
rous Latin Murdrum and Mordrum. Sometimes the Saxons
exprefs'd it by a Word which imply'd a deadly Work.
In the Fr ench 'tis call'd Meartre, in Span!/b Metretre, and in
EngtiS Murder.
The Word was ufd-long before the Reign of K. Canutus;
tho it does not appear that the Saxon Mortb fignificsaviolent
Death, but Death in general.
Formerly, indeed, M'urtber was relrained to a clandefline
killing. Thus, Aferdritus lhomo antiquitus dicebatur, cujusin-
terfeRlor nefciebatur ubicumque velquomodocumqueeeffet Inventus.
Nunc adjungilum ejl, licet fciatur quis Murdrum fecerit, bomics-
dum per proditionem. Leges Hen. 1.
Artburum Nepotempropriis manibus per proditionem Interfecit,
pef1mo Mortis genere quod Angh Murdrum appellant. Matth.
Paris, An. izi6.
Self-MuRTHER, is otherwise call'd Sidcide. See Sux-
CIDE.
MURTHERERS, or MUR T ER ING-Pieces, are fmall
Pieces of Ordnance, either of Brafs or Iron, having Cham-
bers, (that is, Charges made of Brafs or Iron) put in at their
Breeches. See ORDNANCE.
They are mofily ufed at Sea at the Bulk-Heads of the
Fore-Cafble, Half Deck, &ec. in order to clear the Decks
when an Enemy boards the Ship.
MUSCADINE, a rich white Wine, of the Growth of
Provence, Languedoc, Cividad, Lec. SeeWINE.
The way of making MIfcadine at frontignac is as follows:
They let the NMefcadine Grapes grow half dry on the Vine;
as foon as they are gathered, they tread and prefs them im-
mediately, and tunn up the Liquor, without letting it Rand,
and work in the Fat; the Lee occafioning its goodnefs.
The Word, as well as the Liquor, is Frenck. Some fetch
its Original from Musk, the Wine being fuppofed to have
a little of the fmell of that Perfume; others from Mufcus,
* Fly, becaufe the Flies are extremely fond of its Grapes i
as the Lafins had their Vinum Apianurm, fo call'd ab pibus,
from the Pees which fed on it.
MUSCLE, MUSCULUS, in Anatomy, a flefhy, fibrous
Part of the Body of an Animal, deffined to be the Organ
of Motion. See MOTION.
The Mucle is a bundle of thin, parallel Plates ; and is
divided into a great number of Fafciculi, or little Mufcles,
ty)            MnUS
each inclofed in its proper Membrane, from the internal
Surface whereofj pas ian infinite number of trlnfverfe Fila.
ments, which interfedt the Mufcle into feveral diffin& Areas,
fill'd with their refpe&ive Fafeiculiof Fibres. See FiBRE.
A MAufcle is ufually divided into three Paris, theHead,
the Tald, and the Belly.
The Head and Tail, which are alfo calt'd 'Tendons, are the
two extremes of the Mujclec; whereof the firfi is fix'd to
the flable part, and the latter to the part intended to
be moved. See T EN DON.
The Venter or Belly is the body of the Mufcle, being a
thick, flethy part, into which are infdrted Arteries and
Nerves, and out of which iffue Veins and Lymphaducs.
All thefe parts of a Mufcle, the Belly and the Tendons, are
comj ofed of the fame Fibres: Their only difference confihis
in this, that the Fibres of the Tendons are more clofely and
firmly bound together than thofe of the Belly, whicn are
more loofe. Hence in the Belly there is room for a fuffi-
cient Quantity of Blood to give 'em an Appearance of
Rednefs.; and the Whitenefs of the Tendons only pro-
ceeds from the Blood's being in fome meafure excluded
by the tightnefs of their Contexture. The difference then
between the Belly and the Tendons feems to be the fame
that is between a Skein of Thread, and a Cord made of
the fame Thread.
All the Mu'i es ao by having their Bellies inflated or
fwell'd; for by that means they are fhorten'd,fo as to draw,
or prefs the folid Bodies to which they are faflen'daccording
to the direaiion of their Fibres. All the difficulty then in
Mujcular Motion, is, to affign their Fabric, and the Caufe
of their fwelling.
Every fimple Mufcle, then,confifils of one flefhy Belly, and
two Tendons; but may be again divided into others Similar,
tho lefs; and thofe again into others flill lefs, yet itill Si-
milar to the great one: Which divition may be carried on
to a degree of Subtility that exceeds all Imagination; tho
'tis reafonable to think it muft have an end. That laft,
therefore, being Similar to the firfl, mull, in like manner,
have its Jelly and Tendons; and this is what we ordinarily
call a Mufrular Fibre, in an Aff mblage or Union of feveral
whereof, a Mufcle, properly fo call'd, confifts.
Some take the Mxfcular Fibres to be Produ 61ions of the
Arteries and Veins, or the Capillaries of thofe Veifels inof-
culated with, and continued to each other; by the intume-
fcence of whofe Contents, the Extremities are drawn nearer
each other, and by confequence, the Bone to which the
moveable part is fixed, aproximated to the other. But
that they are, in truth, neither Venous, nor Arterious, nor
Lymphatic Veflfels, is evident from the laif Obfervation.
Whether they are Veficular; or whether they only confift
of fingle Threads, may be tfill a Queflion.
Dr. Boerbave, from a confideration that the Nerves enter
every Muf cle along with its Veins and Arteries, and that there
laying afide their outer Integument, they are fo difiributed
thro the whole Body of the Mufcle, as that no one Point can
be affigned wherein a part of 'em is not found; that thofe
Nerves terminate here; and that in other parts of the Body
the Ex tremities of the Nerves are expanded, as it were,
into Membranes; concludes, that the Mufcular Fibres are
nothing elfe but exyremely flender Expanfions of the
Nerves fiript of their Integument, hollow within, and of
the Figure of a Mufcle, and full of a Spirit communicated
by the Nerve from its Origin in the Brain or Cerebellum, by
the continual Aaion of the Heart. See NERVE.
Of thefe Fibres united, are form'd Fafciculi or Bundles;
which, again, have each their feveral Membrane, wherein
they are involved, and kept diflina from others. This
Membrane is extremnely llenderand porous within, full of
Oil, which is accumulated in time of Ref and fpent in
Motion, furnished by the Arteries; and this Oil, in con-
jun&ion with a fmooth mucous Juice fecreted by fmall mu-
cilaginous Glands, interfperfed among thefe Fafciculi, ferves
to lubricate the parts, and preferve the Fafciculi from
fretting on each other.
Now, befides the Nerves, there are Arteries alfo carried
into the Mufcles, and thofe in fuch abundance, and of fuch
contexture, that a Man might be inclined to think the
whole Body of the Muflce compofed of 'em. Thefe are
principally ditiributed among the Fafciculi, and the Mem-
branes that feparate 'em, and perhaps alfo in the external
Surface of each Fibrilla, where they terminate in reticular
Plexus's, or Folds, in little oily Secretories, fmall Lym-
phatics, and perhaps in hollow Fibrillh like Nerves; which
Fibrill' may again either terminatein the Cavity of the Ner-
vous Mufcular Fibres, or make others like'em. This, at
lesil, is clear, that every Branch of an Artery in the
Mufcles has its correfponding little Vein, which united to
the other, increafes its Bulk ; whence the Blood-Veffels
of the Mufcley are alfo Lymphatics.
Of two fuch Ma:4cles as have been defcribed, faften'd in
'oppofite Situations to each other, moft of the Mxfcles, we
know of, confift.
It


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