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Chambers, Ephraim, 1680 (ca.)-1740 / Cyclopædia, or, An universal dictionary of arts and sciences : containing the definitions of the terms, and accounts of the things signify'd thereby, in the several arts, both liberal and mechanical, and the several sciences, human and divine : the figures, kinds, properties, productions, preparations, and uses, of things natural and artificial : the rise, progress, and state of things ecclesiastical, civil, military, and commercial : with the several systems, sects, opinions, &c : among philosophers, divines, mathematicians, physicians, antiquaries, criticks, &c : the whole intended as a course of antient and modern learning

Metallic - Mise,   pp. 542-559 PDF (17.7 MB)

Page 542

( S42 )
tludes, that Gold confifis of a fulphurous ignious Part,
and a heavy mercurial Part fixed thereby; and that upon
taking away the fulphurous or fiery Part, the Gold is con-
,erted into fluid Mercury. See MERCURY.
S. All Metals muff firit be Mercury, e'er they be Gold;
and the thing fuperadded to common Mercury, whereby
it is prevented from becoming Gold, is a lharp volatile
Body, which, when heated, becomes corrofive, and emits
Fumes; which are the Properties of the foffil Sulphur.
4. If any Metal, or other Body, could be found that
only differ'd from Gold in its wanting Weight, it were
impoffible ever to make Gold of it; and, on the contrary,
if a Body could be had that is as heavy as Gold, all the
other Properties, as Colour, Fixity, Duaility, Lcc. might
eafily be added. And hence the more knowing among
the Alchymifls hold the primary Matter of Gold to be
Quickfilver; which, fay they, is Gold, at heart, as com-
ing nearefc to Gold in the point of fpecific Gravity. Only
there is a corrofive Body, i. e. Sulphur, adhering to it,
which; if it were feparated, you would have Goldi or if
it were only inverted, Silver.
And accordingly on fuch Principles whoever would make
Gold out of any other foreign Matter, muft remember, that
the more his Matter differs from Mercury in Weight, Fic.
the lefs Gold it will make. See P11ILOSOP H ER'S Stone.
5. Therefore Metals are tranfmutable into one another:
for if Mercury be the common Matter of all Metals, and if
all the difference lie in the fixing Spirit or Sulphur,which, as
it is lefs or more fubtile and pure, conflitutes this or that
Metal; it is no way improbable they lhould be tranfmuted
by a purer fixing Sulphur, taking place of a corrofive one,
and fixing the Matter into a more perfea Metal.
6. The purefi Metals refult of the pureff and mofl de-
ficate Mercury, and the fmallefl quantity of the fubtileft
Sulphur. Hence, Mercury of Gold is heavier than common
Mercury, and has always fome impure part that is lighter
than Gold; and could that be taken away, and the fixing
Spirit be added, it would become heavier than Gold.
7. The imperfe&t Metals confil of impure Mercury and
imperfect Sulphur, with fome other variable heteroge-
neous Matter in it: Thus,fufed by the Fire, it emits a Fume
which whitens Copper, after which the Sulphur exhales
yet further. The reality of fuch a third Matter is evin-
ced hence, that all thefe bafer Metals are refolvable not
only into Mercury and Sulphur, but alfo into Scoria or
sordes, which are lighter and more earthy than either of
the other, and accordingly fwim therein.
8. Upon the whole it appears, that in the three nobler
Metals, Gold, Mercury, and Silver, it is principally the
greater or lefs proportion of the Sulphur to the Mercury,
that determines them to be Gold, Mercury, or Silver:
That it is by this Proportion thofe feveral Metals are de-
fined and denominated ; and that from this difference of
I'roportion. flow all the fpecific differences of Colour,
Weight, Fixity, Ducaility, 'Volatility, Fulibility, Solubility,
Salubrity, !c.
9. That in the other bafer Metals, befides this different
Proportion of the two Principals, there intervenes another
Caufeof Diverfity, viz., a third Principle, or Matter of an
earthy kind, and very diflant from either of the reft;
which adhering to the pure elemental Sulphur, corrupts
and adulterates, and varioufly modifies it: And from the
different Circumflances of this third Principle, confider'd
along with thofe of the Sulphur itfelf, refult the fpecific
differences of the more imperfecf Metals as to Weight,
Colour, Lec.
Batb METAL, call'd alfo Princes METAL, is a kind of
fitaitious Metal, compofed of the finedi and purefi Brafs
mix'd with Tin, or rather with fome Mineral; whereby
it becomes more difpofed to receive a Polilh, Luflre, Wc.
as alfo fitter to be gilt. See GILDING.
'Tis faid to have been invented by Prince Rupert,whence
its Name.
Be1 METAL, is a Compofition of Copper and Tin melted
together. See BELL.
The ordinary Proportion is e2z or 2 3 Pounds of Tin to
an hundred Weight of the former. See BRASS.
Line of METALS. On Guntser's Seaor, are fometimei
two Lines thus call'd, and noted with the Characlers oi
the feven Metals, 0, ), I, T2, 9, co, and Vi and their
Ufe is to give the proportions between the feveral Metal
as to their Magnitudes and Weights. See their Ufe undei
the Word SECTOR.
To be laid under METAL, in Gunnery, is when th4
Mouth of a Gun lies lower than her Breech.
METALS in Heraldry. There are two Metals ufed it
Heraldry, by way of Colours, viz. Gold and Silver; thb
firft called Or, and the fecond Argent. See OR and AR
In the common painting of Arms, thefe Metals are re
prefented by Wbite and re/ow, which are the natural Co
lours of thofe Metals. See CoLoUR.
In Engraving, Gold is expreffed by dotting the Coat, U'c.
all over; Silver, by leaving it quite blank.
It is a general Rule in Heraldry never to place Metal
upon Metal, nor Colour on Colour: So that if the Field
be of one of the Metals, the Bearing mutl be of fome
Colour, and vice verfa; otherwife the Arms are falfe: Tho
this Rule admits of fome Exceptions.
METALLIC, or METALLINE, an Adjeiftive applied
to fomething bearing a relation to Metals.
Thus we fay, painting in Enamel is only to be perfor-
med with metallic Colours, that is, with fuch as come from
Metals, or are made with Metals; no other being able to
endure the Fire. See ENAMEL.
F. Romani has publifhed a Metaic Hflory of the Popes.
La France Metallique, is a Book of Medals moflly imagi-
nary, pretended to be taken from the Cabinets of the Cu-
rious, where they never were, by glaques de Bie. M. Bizot
has publifhed the Metallic Hijlory of Holland.
METALLU RGIA, the Art of Metals, that is of prepa-
ringand working Metals, from the Glebe or Mineral, to
the Utenfil. See METAL.
The Metaliurgia includes what relates to the finding of
the Metallic Glebe, or Ore in the Mine - the judging of
its Kind, Richnefs, .,c. the Proportion of Metal therein ;
the digging and Separating it from the Earth, and other
matters; and the purifying and difpofing it into a com-
pleat, pure, malleable Metal. See MINE and MINERAL.
Boerhaave divides the Metaliargia into four parts. The
firfl teaches how Metals grow in the Mine, how they are
difcovered, and how procured out of the fame. The fe-
cond how to feparate the Metallic from the other Mat-
ter of the Ore. The third, how to reduce the feparated
Matter to its fimplicity and duffility. The fourth, to work,
gild, polilh, and imitate the finer Metals in the coarfer.
METAMORPHOSIS, the Transformation ofa Perfonr
or a Change into another Form. See TRA NSFOR- MATION.
Thei Antients held two kinds of Metamorpbofes: The
one real, the other apparent. The Metamorpbofis of 7upiter
into a Bull, and of Minerva into an old Woman, were only
apparent. That of Lycaon into a Wolfand of Arachne into
a Spider, were of the number of the real.
Mofi of the antient Metamorpbofes include fome Allego-.
rical meaning, relating either to Phyfics or Morality.
Ovid's Metamorpbofes is a Colleffion of fuch Transforma-
Some Authors are of Opinion, that a great part of the
antient Philofophy is couched under them; and Dr. Hooke
has made an attempt to unriddle, and lay open feveral of
The Word comes from the Greah w,, Change, or Re-
moval from one place or flate to another; and gogovi,
Form, Figure.
METAMORPHISTS, a Sec9 of Heretics in the XVIth
Century, whofe diflinguilhing Tenet was, That the Body
of Jefus Chriff was, upon his Afcenfion into Heaven,
changed, and Metamorpbofed into God.
The MetamorphiJis were a Branch of the Sacramentarians.
METAP'HORA, or METAPHOR, in Rhetoric, a Fi-
gure of Speech whereby a Word is transfer'd from its
proper Signification, to another: or, whereby the proper
Name of dne thing is tranflated and applied to fome other
thing; which other thing is more elegantly explained by
this tralatitious or foreign Name, than by that which pro-
perly belongs to it. As when we fay, the Light of the
Underflanding; to burn with Zeal; to float between
Hope and Defpair, Lcc. See TROPE.
The Metapbor is the moft common of all the Figures of
Speech; and is that ufually meant when we fay a thing is
fpoken Figuratively. See FIGURE.
The Metapbor is a lhort Simile; an Image being thereby
call'd from its proper Subjeal to give the refemblance of
another. SeeSIMILE.
An Allegory is no more than a continued Metapbor. See
The Sources or Places whence Metaphors are drawn, are
innumerable: They may be fetch'd from Divine Matters;
sthus Cicero calls Plato our God, Deus dile nofier Plato. From
F the Elements ; as a Torrent of Eloquence. From Plants;
ras where Virtue has taken Root. From Artificial things ;
s as where Appian is call'd the Cymbal of the World ;
r Longinus, a living Library ; Pertinax, Fortune's Foot-
Ball, &c.
k intilian diflinguilhes Metapbors into four kinds: The
firfl, when the Word is transfer'd from one Animal to
a another; as when Livy fays th at Cato ufed to bark at Scipio :
e or, when our Saviour calls Herod, Fox. The fecondwhen
- the Word is transfer'd from one Inanimate to another; as
Bridle, for Laws. The third, when Inanimates are apply'd
to Animates   ; as the Flower of Youth. And the taft,
when Animates are apply'd to Inanimates; as the River
difdain'd its Bounds.

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