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Chambers, Ephraim, 1680 (ca.)-1740 / Cyclopædia, or, An universal dictionary of arts and sciences : containing the definitions of the terms, and accounts of the things signify'd thereby, in the several arts, both liberal and mechanical, and the several sciences, human and divine : the figures, kinds, properties, productions, preparations, and uses, of things natural and artificial : the rise, progress, and state of things ecclesiastical, civil, military, and commercial : with the several systems, sects, opinions, &c : among philosophers, divines, mathematicians, physicians, antiquaries, criticks, &c : the whole intended as a course of antient and modern learning

Healfang - Hemp,   pp. 218-237 PDF (18.9 MB)

Page 218

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Moors HEAD, is underflood of a Horfe with a black
jIead and Feet; the Body being ufually of a Roan
Colour. See HORSE.
Moors Head, is alfo ufed by Engineers, for a Kind of
Bomb or Granado, fhot out of a Cannon. See BOMB
Moors Head, is alfo ufed in Heraldry, for a Reprefen-
tation, ufually in Profile, of a !Black-noors Head, fwath'd
or roll'd about with a Bandage; frequenly bore as a
Creft. See CREST.
Moors Head, in Chymifiry, is a Cover, or Capital, of
an Alembic, having a long Neck, to convey the Vapours
rais'd by the Fire, into a Veffiel, which ferves as a Re-
frigeratory. See ALEMBIC.
In Mufic, the HEAD of a Lute, Theorbo, or the like,
is the Place where the Pins or Pegs are fcrew'd, to firetch
or flacken the Strings. See LUTE, &c.
The SDragons Head, in Aftronomy, Wc. is the afcend-
ing Node of the Moon, or other Planet.    See NODE,
HEAD-A4ch, a painful Senfation in the Mufcles, Mem-
branes, Nerves, or other Parts of the Head.   See CE-
It is fuppofed to arife from an extraordinary Diflention
of thofe Parts, either by the Fluids therein being ratified,
or their Quantity and Motion increas'd.
When attended with a Vomiting, Deafnefs, and WatchinE,
it portends Madnefs; with a Noife in the Ear, Dulne s
of Feeling in the Hands, &c. an Apoplexy or Epilepfy.
The Cure is by Bleeding in the Jugular, Cupping, or
applying Leeches to the Temples, and behind the Ears
and Neck. - Iffues, Emeticks, and Diaphoreticks are alfo
occafionally ufed ; with Anti-epilepticks and Apopledicks.
-  A Veficatory applied to' the whole Scalp, is the lafi
M. Romnberg gives us an extraordinary Inflance of the Cure
of a mofl vehement and inveterate Head-Ach, by an acci-
dental Burn of the Head. See BURN.
HEAD-Borow, fignifies the Perfon who is chief of the
Prank-Pledge; and had antiently the principal Diredtion
of thofe within his own Pledge. See FRANK-Pledge.
He was alfo called .'Burrow-Head, Burjbolder, now
T'oJbolder, Ylhird-B~oro-w, Vything-Man, Chief-Pledge, and
.Borow-Elder, according to the Diverfity of Speech in
divers Places. See TYTHING-Man, Cc.
This Officer is now ufually call'd a High-Conjiable.
The Head-Borow    was the chief of ten Pledges; the
other nine were call'd Hand-.Borows, or Plegii Manuakes.
HEAD Farcin. See FARCIN.
HEAD-Land, in Husbandry, is that Part which is
Ploughed acrofs, at the Ends of other Lands.
HEAD Mould-Shot, a Difeafe in Children, wherein the
Sutures of the Skull, generally the Coronal, ride; that is,
have their Edges Ihot over one another; and fo clofe
lock'd together, e. gr. as to comprefs the internal Parts,
the Meninges, or even the Brain it fef.I  See SUTURE.
The Difeafe ufually occafions Convulfions; and is fup-
pofed to admit of no Care from Medicines; unlefs Room
cou'd be given, by manual Operation, or a Divulfion of
the Sutures.
The Head Mould-Shot, is the Diforder oppofite to the
Horfe-Shoe Head. See HORSE-Shoe Head.
HEAD-Pence, and HEAD-Silver. See COMMON Fine.
HEAD-Sea, is when a great Wave, or Billow of the Sea,
comes right a-head of the Ship, as fhe is in her Courfe.
HEAD-Stall, in the Manage. See CAVESON.
HEALFANG, or HALSFANG, in our antient Cuiloms,
Colhifrigi u, or the Punilhment of the Pillory.    See
The Word is compounded of two Saxon Words, Hair,
i. e. Collum, and fanS; Captura; pcena jcilicit qua ali-
cuii Collum firingatr. See COLLISTRIGIUM.
Healfang, however, cannot fignifie a Pillory in the Charter
of Canutus de Foreftis, Cap. 14. Et pro culpa folvat Regi
duos folidos quos Dani vocant Halfehang.
Sometimes it is taken for a pecuniary Puniihment, or
Muld, to commute for landing in the Pillory; and is to
be paid either to the King, or to their chief Lord. -
'uz falfum  Seftimonium dedit, reddat Regi vet Zerre
lomnino Halfeng. Leg. H. I.
HEALiNG, in its general Senfe, includes the whole
Procefs of curing or removing a Diforder, and retloring
Health. See CURE and DISEASE.
In this Senfe, Medicine is defined the Art of Healing,
Ini its more refrained Senfe, as ufed in Chirurgery, Tc,
Realixg denotes the uniting or confolidating the Lips of
n E A ,~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
a Wound or Ulcer. See WOUN)D and ULCER.
The Medicines, proper for this Intenlion, are Ycall'd In-
carnatives, Agglutinatives, Vulneraries, ffc. See INCAR.-
Dr. Beale has a Difcourfe of Healing Springs and
Waters in the Philofh 7rarfa#. Ne.-.       See WA:R
HEALING, in Architelure, denotes the Covering the
Roof of a Building. See Roop and CovERING.
The Healing is various; as of Lead,     ilyes, Slate,
Horjbam Stone, Shingles, Reed and Straw.    See LEAD,
HEALTH, Valetudo, Sanitas, a due Temperament, or
Conflitution, of the feveral Parts whereof an Animal is
compofed, both in Refpe& of Quantity and Quality. - Or
- it is that State of the Body, wherein it is fitte to difcharge
the natural Fun&ions perftdly, eafily, and durably.  See
Health, is the State or Condition, oppofite to !Tifea'e.
The Prefervation, andl Refloration of Health, makes the
Objea of the Art of Medicine. See MEDICINE.
The Condition, or Continuance of Health, depends prin-
cipally on the fix Non-Naturals, viz. Air, Food, Exercife,
the Paffions, Evacuation and Retention, and Sleep and
Waking. See each in its Place, FooD, EXERCISE, PAs-
The Antients personified and even deified Health; or
rather, ereded a Goddefs to whom they fuppofed the Care
of Health to belong, - The Greeks worfhipp'd her under
the Name Hygeia, and the Latins under that of Sanitas.
- The Place of her Worfhip at Ro4e was on the Mons
kuirinalis, where fhe had a Temple 3 and a Statue crown'd
with Medicinal Herbs.
We frequently find the Goddefs Health on the Reverfe
of Medals. - She is represented with a Serpent firetch'd
on her left Arm, and holding a Patera to it with the left.
Sometimes fhe has an Altar before her, with a Serpent
twilled round the fame, and raifing its ]Iead to take fome-
thing out of the fame. The Infcription is SAL. AUG.
iHo fe of HEALTH, a Kind of Hofpital, or public
Building, for the Reception and Entertainment of Perfons
infeded with the Plague, or coming from Places infeced
therewith. See PEST-HOZIfe, QUARANTINE, CC.
In the like Senfe we fay, Officers of Health, Certificate
of Health, &c.
HEAM, among Farriers, the fame with the After-birth
in Women. See SECVNDINE.
Thyme, Penny-Royal, Winter Succory, or common Horel
hound, boil'd in white Wine, and given a Mare, are efleem'd
hood to expel the Heafs. - Dittany given in a Pefraryj
expels the Heamn, as well as the dead Fole: So do Fennel,
Hops, Savin, Angelica, Wc.
HEARING, A4uditus, the Aa, or Faculty of perceiving
Hearing is reckon'd among our external Senfes. - Its
Organ is the Ear, and particularly the auditory Nerve
diffufed thro' the fame: And its Objed certain Motions,
or Vibrations of the Air. S e SENSE, EAR, and AIR.
Hence, Hearivg may be more Scientifically defined a
Senfation, whereby from a due Motion imprefs'd on the
Fibrillx of the auditory Nerve, and communicated thence
to the Senfory; the Mind perceives, or gets the Idea of
Sounds. See SENSATION.
Philofophers have diffei'd as to the immediate Organ of
Hearing. - Ariflotle will have it the Cochlea and Tym-
panum, and takes the Senfe of Hearing to be feated
therein. Hift. Animal, Cap. Io. in which he is followed
by Galen, Lib. 8. de ufr par. See TYMPANUM, &C.
The Moderns fpeak of the Poin-t on much better Ground.
- The Ear, and the feveral Parts thereof, Membranes,
Canals, Labyrinths, Nerves, Wc. are only Means, Vehicles
for the Reception, Modification, and Tranfmiffion of the
fonorous Matter to the Brain; which is the Seat of the
Senfe. See BRAI N and SENSORY.
A Sound, in Efied, is nothing but a certain Refraaionr
or Modulation of the external Air, which being gathered
by the external Ear, palfes through the Meatus Audito-
rius, and beats upon the Membrana fympani, which
moves the four little Bones in the IT'mpanum. See Au-
In like Manner, as it is beat by the external Air, thefe
little Bones move the internal Air, which is in the
Vy'mpanum and Vefltibulumn; which internal Air makes
anr Impreflion upon the auditory Nerve in the Labyrinth,
and Cochlea, according as it is moved by the little Bones
in the 1fympaanum; f that according to the various Re-
fraations of the external Air, the internal Air makes
various Impreffions upon the auditory Nerve, the imme-
diate Organ of Reartng  f which different Impreffions re-
prefent different Sounds.

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