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Chambers, Ephraim, 1680 (ca.)-1740 / Cyclopædia, or, An universal dictionary of arts and sciences : containing the definitions of the terms, and accounts of the things signify'd thereby, in the several arts, both liberal and mechanical, and the several sciences, human and divine : the figures, kinds, properties, productions, preparations, and uses, of things natural and artificial : the rise, progress, and state of things ecclesiastical, civil, military, and commercial : with the several systems, sects, opinions, &c : among philosophers, divines, mathematicians, physicians, antiquaries, criticks, &c : the whole intended as a course of antient and modern learning

(1728)

Flummery - Fortune, pp. 61-80 PDF (19.6 MB)

Page 61

Pi 2 L C FLU (d 6) VIp FLU nce, the Altitudes 4 Waters, A B. and C D, D'equalApertures E and F; are in a duplicate Taters difcharged in the fame time. And ad fWater are as the Velocities; the Velocities a. fulbduplicate Ratio of their Altitudes: ie Ratio of the Waters discharged by two rnd C D, together with the Altitude of one Tgiven; we have a Method of finding the other, viz. by finding a fourth Proportional given Quantities; which Proportional multi- gives the Altitude of C D, required. fo, the Ratio of the Altitudes of two Tubes tures being given, as aifo the Quantity of ged by one of them: We have a Method of he Quantity the other fhall discharge in the hius, to the given Altitudes, and the Square y of Water difcharged at one Aperture, find ortional. The fquare Root of this will be of Water required. -. the Heights of the Tubes as 9 to 5 5; and of Water discharged at one of them, three lifcharged by the other, will be v (9.2.5:9) 'Ititudes of two 7Tubes A X, and C 2D be in- e Apertures E and F likewife unequal: Water discharged in the fame time, will be wmpounded of the fimple Ratio of the Aper- elbduplicate one of the Altitudes. ", if the Quantities of Water discharged in by two Tubes, whofe Apertures and Altitudes - equal; the Apertures are reciprocally as the Altitudes: and the Altitudes in a reciprocal quares of the Apertures. rltitudes of two Stubes be equal, the Water ''ith equal Velocity, however unequal the .,;ertures be.X 90 If the'Altitudes of two 7lubes, A X, and C D (Figs 3.) as alfo their Apertures B, and Fbe unequal; the Velocities of the Waters di/chargcd are in a fiubduplicate Ratio of their Altitudes. VCorol. I. Hence, as the Velocities of Waters flowing 'but at equal Apertures, when the Altitudes are unequal, are alfo in a fubduplicate Ratio of the Altitudes; and, as this Ratio is equal, if the Altitudes be equal; it appears, in the general, that the Velocities of Waters flowers out of Tubes is in a fubduplicate Ratio of the Altitudes. mnce alfo, the Squares of the Velocities are as the S. otte found from repeated Experiments, that if a A B C D have a Tube E F fitted to it,there will rater be evacuated through the Tube, than there ive been in the fame time, through the Aperture reffel E, without the Tube: And that the Motion Fluid is accelerated fo much the more, as the F is the longer. The Altitude of a Veflfel A C being one Foot, that [ube E F three Feet, and the Diameter of the A- three Lines; 6-y Septiers of Water were discharged pace of one Minute; whereas upon taking off the inly four Septiers were discharged. Again, when gth of the 'Tube E F was fix Feet, and the Dia- F the Aperture F, an Inch; the whole Quantity of run out in 37 Seconds: But, cutting off half the H, the Veffiel was not evacuated in lefs than 45 Se- and taking it quite away, in lefs than 95 Seconds. be Altitudes and Apertures of two Cylinders full of being the fame: One of them will difscharge double intity of Water dircharged in the fame timc by the if the fimt be kept continually full, while the other feif emnply. he Velocity of the full Veffhel will be equable; and the other ceotinually retarded. Now, 'tis demon- that, if two Bodies be impell'd by the fame Force, one proceeds equably, and the fecond is equably re- By that time they have loft all their Motion, the moved double the fpace of the other. If two Tubes have the fame Altitudes, and equal A- ; the 7flmes wherein they -will empty thenWelves, in the Ratio of their riafes. cylindric, and Pri/mnatic Ve/fels, as A B C D .) empty themselves by this Law, that the guanti- Tater difiharged in equal times, decreafe according neven Numbers, I. 3. 5. 7. 9. &C. taken backwards. he Velocity. of the descending Level F G is conti- eczeafing in the fubduplicate Ratio of the decreaf- tuides: But the Velocity of a heavy Body defcend- Weafeslin the fubduplicate Ratio of the increafing s. The Motion, therefore, of the Level F G in its from G. to B, is the fame,- as if it were to defcend inverfe Ratio, from B to- G. But if it defcend from the Spaces, in equal times, would increafe accor- the Progression of the uneven Numbers. Confe- / uentiy, the Altitudes of the tevil P G in equal him decreafe according to the fame Progreiorn invemrly taken. Corol. Hence, the Level of Water F G- defends. b ihe fame Law, as, by an equal Force imptefs'd, it would. ) atcend thro' an Altitude equal to F G. From this Principle, might mrany other pairtichilr 3Law of the Motion of Fluids be demotifirated, which -fr Bre- 4ity fake we here omits - Silo divide a Cylindrical reel into Parts, which f/all be evacuated in certain'Parts, -or )Divirons Of Ime, fee CLEPSIDRA. IZ If Water defcending thro' a flbe HE (Fig. r 5 .)fportt up at the Aperture G, wbofc Dirtffion is vertical it will rife to the fame -Altitude G 1, at whtch the -Level of the Water L M, in the VeJel A jB C D does fland. : For fince the Water is driven thro' the Aperture G. by the Force of Gravity of the Column E K; its Velocity will be the fame as that of a Body by the fame Force imprefs'd, would rife to the Altitude F 1. Wherefore, fince the Di- retion of the Aperture is vertical; the Direftion of the Water fpouting thro' it, will be fo too. Confequently, the Water mufi rife to the Height of the Level of the Water L M in the Veflrel. Indeed, by the Experiment it appears, that the Water does not rife quite fo high as I: Befide, that the Aperture 0G fhould be fmaller, as the Height of the Level of the Water is lefs: And even Imaller, swhen Mercury is to be fpouted, than when Water. But this is no Objeffionto the Truth of the Theorem; it only fhews that there are cer- tain external Inpediments, which diminilh the Afcent. Such are the Refifnance of the Air; the Fridfion of the Tube, and the Gravity of the ascending Fluid. I 30 Water defcending thro' an inclined Tube, or a Tube bent in any manner; will fpout up through a perpendicular Aperture to the Height at which the Level of the Water in the Veffel flands.--- 140 S'he Lenghts or Diflances D) E and D) F, or I H, and IG(Fig.i6.) to which Water -illfpout either thro' an in- clined, or a horizontalpAperture D), are in a fubduplicatf Ra- tio of the Altitudes in the Veffel or Tube A .B and AM D. For, fince Water fpouted out thro' the Aperture D, en- deavours to proceed in the horizontal Line D F; tand at the fame time, by the Power of Gravity, tends downwards in Lines perpendicular to the fame i nor can the one Power hinder the other, in as much as the Direcdions are not con- trary : It follows, that the Water by the Direcßion B A will arrive at the Ling I G, in the fame time wherein it would have arrived at it, had there been no horizontal Impulfe at all. Now the Right-lines I H and I G are the Spaces which the fame Water would have described in the mean time by the horizontal Impetus: But the Spaces I H and I G, inafmuch as the Motion is uniform, are as the Velo- cities. Confequently, the Velocities are in a fubduplicate Ratio of the Altitudes A B and A 1). And therefore, the Lengths or Diflances to which the Water will fpout in A- pertures either horizontal or inclined, are in a fubduplicate Ratio of the Altitudes. Corol. Hence, as every Body projeaed either hori- zontally, or obliquely, in an unrefifling Medium, describes a Parabola: Water projeaed either through a vertical or inclined Spout, will defcribe a Parabola. Hence we have a way of making a delightful kind of Water Arbours, or Arches, viz. by placing feveral inclined Tubes in the fame Right-line. On the/e Principles are forn'd various Hydraulic Ea- gines for the railing, &c. of Fluids, as Pumps, S phoros, Fountains, or Jets de Eau, Fec. -Which fee de/cribed under their proper Articles, PUMP, S'ikuoi*, FOUNTAIN, SrIRAL SCREW, Sc. For the Laws of the Motion of Fluids, by their own Gravity, along open 6kannels,&c. fee RIVEP., and W-vE. For the Lais of oPreJre and llotio,2 of Air, coiiji. der'd as a luid, fee AIiJ and WIND. FLUMMERY, A wholelome Jelly, made of Oatmeal. The manner of pre paring it in the Weftern Parts of England, is to take half a Peck of Wheat Bran, which muil be foaked in cold Water three or four Days; then firain out the Oil and Milk-water of it, and boil it to a Jelly: After- wards feafon it with Sugar, Rofe and Orange-flower Water, and let it fland till cold, and thickened again; and then cat it with White or Rhenilli Wine, or Milk-cream.' FLUOR, in Phyfick, Lelc. a Fluid; or more properly, the State of a Body, which was befire hard, or folid, but is now reduc'd by Fufion or Fire into a State of Fluidity. See FLUIDITY. Gold and Silver will remain a loug time in a Fluor, kept, to it by the intenfeft Heat, without lofing any thipg of their Weight. See FiXITY. FLIOR is alfo us'd byr the modern Mineral Itft. for fuch foft, tranfparent, 1harry kinds of mineral I ns, as are frequently found amonga Oars, and Sto in Mines and Quarries, * Q. i LI i i I I 11 I i 9 i E i i I i A i E E o I 0 i a R 9 Z 9 r I I

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