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Chambers, Ephraim, 1680 (ca.)-1740 / Cyclopædia, or, An universal dictionary of arts and sciences : containing the definitions of the terms, and accounts of the things signify'd thereby, in the several arts, both liberal and mechanical, and the several sciences, human and divine : the figures, kinds, properties, productions, preparations, and uses, of things natural and artificial : the rise, progress, and state of things ecclesiastical, civil, military, and commercial : with the several systems, sects, opinions, &c : among philosophers, divines, mathematicians, physicians, antiquaries, criticks, &c : the whole intended as a course of antient and modern learning

Diagram - Dionysiaca,   pp. 199-218 PDF (19.2 MB)

Page 199

i   A
r 1
Ite ^ 709I
br Chromatic. See GENERA,
Nvd, and more Chords added to it;
: By fuch means it came from 4
: IO, then 14, and at laf I8. See
Is, or Sounds, they gave a particu-
Situation in the fDagramma, or
and Order, commencing from the
)roftambanomenos, Hypate-Ilypa-
n, Lychanos-Hypaton, Hypate-
1v, Lycbanos-Mefion, Mefe, Trite-
on, PTaranete-synem-menon, Nete-
fie, ftrite-fDiezeugmenon, Para-
e-fDiezei~gmenon, l7rite-Hyperbo-
old'on, Nete-Hyperlbok'on.
ved this Scale, or fDiagram, very
o fmall Extent, he added five mnore
lay'd them all down on a Staff of
the long Greek Names abovemen-
Ca alt his iNotes Dy Gregorys Ieven Letters.
r lowefd Note of his Scale, he marked r, and
; whence the whole Scale came to be deno-
M17, in Geometry, Uc. a Scheme, for the Ex-
Demnonfiration of any Figure, or the Properties
ing. See FIGURE.
)IUM, in Pharmacy, is prepar'd Scammony.
ation is ordinarily perform'd by boiling the
a Quince.   Others make it receive the
ved Sulphur, whence it is call'd, Sulphurated,
(iulphuratum.  Some incorporate it with a
)irit of Vitriol rnrat- fufficient to malke a Sort
1iquid pafll which is afterwards fet to dry in the Sun, or
a gentle Fire.  And this Preparation they call ZDiagry-
m Aoftizm.- The End of all thefe Preparations is to
corred the Scammony; But many more are of Opinion, it
lias nothing that needs Correction, and that it may be ufed
i its naturalState. See SCAMMONY.
..the Word Diagrydium is form'd, by Corruption, from
fp OVl little rear.
TXT A T-T V - A T1r-Y A  rT A TTh7 A   -       -Io i__  . - a   r
111r-oAA  I a, or DlA1li.&S-fF 1 h, among 'varriers,
ik made for Horfes, denominated from the fix In-
nts it confifis of; 'viz. Birthwort, and Gentian Roots,
!r Berries, Bayberries, Drops of Myrrh, and Ivory
Nigs, mix'd together. It is an excellent Counter-Poifon,
bites of venomous Beafts, Colds, Conlumptions, t5c.
AL, or Sitn-D I AL, an Inflrument ferving to meafure
, by means of the Shadow of the Sun. See TIME,
a Word is form'd from the Latin Dies, Day, becaufe
ting the Hour of the Day. See HOUR.
Greeks call it Sciatericum, from its doing it by the
Fa is more accurately defin'd, a Draught, or De-
on of certain Lines on a Plane, or Surface of a Body
fo contriv'd, as that the Shadow of a Style, or a
on, or a Ray of the Sun pafs'd through a Hole there-
all touch certain Points at certain Hours. See STYLE.
_ l~ r -:  _    nr rr . . ", *7}:_7_  _ r  A   _ A 1_  J-  r- -----
'iverlity 01t.un-DJiaes ariies from the uirrerent Si-
of the Planes, and the different Figure of the Sur-
ereon they are defcribed; whence they become
ated Equinodial', Horizontal, Vertical, Polar,
Erea, !Declining, Inclining, Reclining, Cylin-
are Sometimes diflinguilh'd into Primary, and Se-
Primary DiALS, are thofe, either drawn on the Plane
a the Horizon. call'd f-orizontal Dials: or nernendicular
nthe Planes either of the Mexidian; orIlrime Ver-
d VerticalZDials; to which Number are ufually
fe drawn on the Polar, and Equinodial Planes,
r Horizontal, norVertical.  See PLANE.
7ial DIAL, is that defcrib'd on the Equinodial
Plane reprefenting that of the Equinodial. See
oblique to the Horizon, either hangs over to-
and makes an acute Angle with the Plane of the
or it falls off backwards from it, and makes an
,le therewith. This latter is call'd a Reclining
which, if it recline back equal to the Complement
itude of the Place, it lies in the Plane of the
I1; and a 5Dial drawn thereon, is denominated an
;d D7ial
Iial Dials are ufually diflinguifhi'd into Upper,
,towards the Zenitb ; and Lo'wer, which refpe&
s the Sun only illumines the upper Surface of an
LlPlane, while he is in our IemiIpbhere, or on the
Side of the Equator, an Upper.,Lquiaolial.Vial
will only lhew the Hour during the Spring, and Summer-
And agaiti as the Sun only illumines the lower Surface
of an Equinocial Plane, while he is in the Southern Hemi-
fphere, or on the other Side the Equator; a Lower Equi-
=iofial tDial will only Thew the Hour in Autumn, and,
To have an Equino5fial Dial, therefore, that fhall
ferve all the Year round, the Uppfer and Lo-wer muff be
joyned together 7 that is, it mufl be drawn on each Side of
the Plane.
And fince the Sun ihines on one Side or other of an
Equinoalial Plane the whole Day; fuch a !Dial will lhevi
all the Hours of an Artificial Day.
So defcribe an Equinoaial DI AL Geometrially.
The Equinoffial is the firfi, eafieff, and moft natural of
all Dials: But the Neceffity of drawing it double, pre-
vents its being much in Ufe. However, as its Struaure
lhews the reafon of the other Kinds; and as it even furnifhes
a good Mechanical Method of drawing all the other Kinds
of Di)als, it lhall be here laid down.
Firfl, then, to defcribe an Upper Equinoffial DIALi
From a Center C ( Tab. fDialling, Fig. 4. ) defcribe a Cir-
cle ABDE, and by two Diameters AD, and BE, interfeai-
ing each other at right Angles, divide it into Quadrants
AB, BD, DE, and ER. Subdivide each Quadrant into
fix equal Parts by their right Lines C I, C 2, C 3, Tic.
which Lines will be Hour-Lines. Through the Centre C
drive a Style, or Pin, perpendicular to the Plane ABDE.
The ]Dial thus defcrib'd, being raifed fo as to be in the
Plane of the Equator, the Line C 1z, in the Plane of the
Meridian, and the Point A looking towards the South; the
Shadow of the Style will Ihew the Hours both of the
Fore-noon and After-noon.
For, Horary Circles include Arches of the Equator of
fifteen Degrees each. (See HOELARY Circle.)   Confe-
quently the-Plane of ABDE  being fuppofed in the Plane
of the Equator, the Horary Circle will likewife include
Arches of iS Degrees of the Circle ABDE.      Where-
fore, fince the Angles Iz C IX, II t10 IO  C 9, Wc. are
each here fuppofed 1 5 Degrees, the Line C I2, C II, C Io,
C 9, Uc. are Interfe&ions of Horary Circles, with the
Plane of the Equinodial.
Again, fince the Style paffing through the Centre C,
is the Axis of the World; its Diflance from the Centre of
the Earth being inconfiderable, and it being the common
Diameter of the Horary Circles; its Shadow will cover the
Hour C Iz, when the Sun is in the Meridian, or Circle of
iO a-Clock; C   II, when in the Circle of Ix a-Clock-
C Io, when in the Circle of Io a-Clock, Wc.
Secondly, Tfo defcribe a Lower Equinofial DIAL:
The Method is the fame as that For the Upper Dial already
described; except that no Hour-Lines are to be drawn
beyond that of 6 a-Clock.
Thirdly, To defcribe an Univerfial Equinoaial Dr AL.'
Joyn two Metal, or Ivory Planes ABCD, and CDEF#
(Fig. 5.) fo as to be moveable at the Joynt. On the upper
Surface of the Plane ABCD, defcribe an Upper Equi-
noffial Dial, and upon the lower a Lower, as already di-
reded; and through the Center I drive a Style. In the
Plane DEFC cut aBox, and put a Magnetical Needle G
therein ; fit on the fame Plane a Brafs Quadrant nicely
graduated, and paffing through a Hole cut in the Plane
ABCD. Now, fince this may be fo plac'd, by means
of the Needle, as that the Line I Iz, fhall be in the Plane of
the Meridian: And, by means of the Quadrant, may be
fo raifed, as that the Angle BCE fhall be equal to the Ele-,
vation of the Equator; it will ferve as a Dial in any Part
of the World.
Horizontal DIAL, is that delcribed on a Horizontal
Plane, or a Plane Parallel to the Horizon. See HoRIzoN.
Since the Sun may illumine a Horizontal Plane at all
Times of the Year, while he is above the Horizon; a Ho-
rizontail Dial may fhew all the Hours of the Artificial Day;
throughout the Year; So that a more perfed Dial cannot
be requir'd.
To defcribe an Horizontal DI AL Geometrically.
Draw a Meridian Line B, (Fig. 6.) on the given immO-
veable Plane5 or affurme it, at Pleafure, on a moveable one}
From a Point taken at Pleafure, as C, erefl a Perpcndi-
cular CD, and make the Angle CAD equal to the Eleva-
tion of the Pole. In D make another Angle CDiE equal
likewife to the Elevation of the Pole, and draw the right
Line DC meeting AB in E; Then make EB equal to
ED, and from the Centre B with the Radius EB, defiribo
a Quadrant EBF, which divide into 6 equal Parts. Througl
E draw the right Line GH, cutting AB at right Angles.
From the Centre B through the Ieveral Divi ions of the
Quadrant EJ' draw right tines U a, B b, Bc, B d, BHi
- -a

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