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Chambers, Ephraim, 1680 (ca.)-1740 / Cyclopædia, or, An universal dictionary of arts and sciences : containing the definitions of the terms, and accounts of the things signify'd thereby, in the several arts, both liberal and mechanical, and the several sciences, human and divine : the figures, kinds, properties, productions, preparations, and uses, of things natural and artificial : the rise, progress, and state of things ecclesiastical, civil, military, and commercial : with the several systems, sects, opinions, &c : among philosophers, divines, mathematicians, physicians, antiquaries, criticks, &c : the whole intended as a course of antient and modern learning

Chose - Clause,   pp. 213-232 PDF (19.5 MB)

Page 213

CHO (i2
Fore, they were taken from various Subjeas, they
ow all drawn from one and the fame.
Chorus, by degrees, became inferted and incorpo-
nto the Action, to which it was only intended as an
an or Ornament. Sometimes the Chorus was to
and then their Chief, whom they call'd Corypheus,
n behalf of all the refic: The finging was perform'd
whole Company; fothat when the Choryp hnus firuck
Song, the Chorus immediately join'd him. See Co-
dies the four Songs, which made the Divifion of the
and which were manag'd by the Chorus, the Chorus
nes, alfo, join'd the A61ors in the Courfe of the Re-
ation, with their Plaints and Lamentations; on occa-
any unhappy Accidents that befel 'em.
ijU t lAP. FLU )ILILII LL   UtJTI     W LLnow   t   rdgC
dy was form'd, and that for which it feem'd chiefly re-
tain'd, was to fhew the Intervals of the Aas : While the
Aaors were behind the Scenes, the Chorus engag'd the
Speffators; their Songs ufually turn'd on what was Jufl ex-
hibited; and were not to contain any thing but what was
fuited to the Subjeft, and had a natural Conneaion with
it: fo that the Chorus concurr'd with the Adtors for advan-
cing the Adion.
'Tis a Fault obferv'd in Euripides's Tragedies, that his
Chorus's are detach'd from the Aaion, and not taken from
the fiame Subjed. There were fome other Poets, who to
fave the Pains of compofing Chorus's, and adapting them
to the Piece, contented themfelves with invented Songs,
which had no relation to the Adion. Thefe Foreign Cho-
rus's were the lefs pardonable, as the Chorus was effeem'd
to ad a Part in the Piece; and to reprefent the Spedators,
who were look'd on as intereffced therein; infomuch that
the Chorus was not always to be mute, even in the Courfe
of the Ats.
In the modern Tragedies, the Chorus is laid afide; and
the Fiddles fupply its Place. M. Dacier looks on this Re-
trenchment as of ill confequence ; and thinks it robs Tra-
gedy of a great part of its Luxire. He adds, that 'tis ridi-
culous to have a Tragic Adion broke, and interrupted by
impertinent Flourihes from the Mufick Box: and to have
the Spedators, who are fuppos'd to be mov'd by the Re-
prefentation, become all of a fudden calm and eafy, break
off at the height of a Pafiton, and amufe themfelves peace-
ably with a Foreign Entertainment. The Re-effablifitment
of the Chorus he judges neceffary, not only for the Embel-
lifhment and Regularity of the Piece; but alfo, in regard
it was one of its principal Funrions, to redrefs and correa
any Extravagancies that might fall from the Mouths of the
Adors, when under any violent Paflion, by prudent, and vir-
tuous Reflpflions.
That which occafion'd the Supprefflion of the Chorus,
was its being incompatible with certain Complots, and fe-
cret Deliberations of the Aaors. For 'tis in no wife pro-
bable, that fach Machinations Ihould be carry'd on in the
Eyes of Perfons interefled in the Affion. As the Chorus,
therefore, never went off the Stage, there feem'd a Necef-
fity of laying it afide, to give the greater Probability to
thefe kind of Intrigues, which require Secrecy. See TRA-
M. Dacier obferves, there was a Chorus, or Grex, alfo
in the antient Comedy; but that too is fupprefs'd in the
new : chiefly becaufe made ufe of to reprove Vices, by at-
tacking Perfons. See COMEDY.
The Chorus in Comedy was at firfi no more than a fingle
Perfon, who fpoke in the antient Compofures for the Stage:
The Poets, by degrees, added to him another; then two,
afterwards three, and at laft more: fo that the mofd an-
tient Comedies had nothing but the Chorus, and were only
fo many Lectures of Virtue.
To give the CHoRus, among the Greeks, was to purchafe
a Dramatic Piece of the Poet, and defray the Expences of
its Reprefentation.
The Perfon who did this was call'd Choragus. At A-
tbens, the Charge of Choragus was laid on the Archon 5 at
Rome on the .Ediles. See CHORAGUs.
CHoRUs is likewife us'd in Mufick, where, at certain
Periods of a Song, the whole Company are to join the Sing-
er, in repeating certain Couplets, or Verfes.
CHOSE, i.e. thing, in Law, is us'd in various Circumfrian-
ces, and with various Epithets; as,
CHOSE Local, Something annex'd to a Place, v.g. a Mill.
CHOSE 71ranritory, Something movable, and which may
be tranfported from place to place.
CHOSE in A4fion, is not any thing Corporeal, but only a
Right, v. g. an Annuity, Obligation, Covenant, &c.
Chofe in Aflion may alfo be called C(bofe in Suf/pence, as hav-
ing no real Exiffence, and not being properly in PofTeffion.
CHRISM, Oil consecrated by the Bifhop, and us'd in
the RomiJh and Greek Churches, in the Adminifiration of
Baptifm, Confirmation, Ordination, and Extreme Unction.
3)                   CHR \
The Chrifm is prepar'd on Holy 7'hurfday w  wotlc
of Ceremony. In Spain, 'twas antiently the Cuflom for
the Bifhop to take one third of a Sol for the Chrifim diflri-
buted to each Church; on account of the Balfam that en-
ter'd its Compofition.
In England we had likewife CHRISM Pence, Cbri/matis
5Denarii, or Chrifmales !Denarii; which was a Tribute
paid to the Bilhop by the Parifh Clergy, for their Chrifm,
confecrated at Eafler for the enfuing Year: but this was
afterwards condemn'd as Simoniacal.
The Word comes from the Greek yfi", which fignifies
the fame thing.
tDu Cange obferves, there are two Kinds of Cbri/m;
the one prepar'd of Oil and Balfam, us'd in Baptifm, Confir-
mation, and Ordination; the other of Oil alone, confecrated
by the Bilhop, us'd antiently for the Catechumens, and fill
in Extreme Unction.
The Maronites, before the Time of their Reformation,
befides Oil and Balfam, us'd Mufk, Saffron, Cinnamon,
Rofes, white Incenfe, and feveral other Drugs mention'd
by Reynoldus, in I541, with the Dofes of each. The Je-
fuit fDandini, who went to Mount Libanus in quality of
the Pope's Nuntio,ordained, in a Synod held there in 1596,
that Chri/m, for the future, 1hould be made only of two
Ingredients, Oil and Balfam; the one representing the hu-
man Nature of Jefus Chri{}, the other his Divine Nature.
The Adion of impofing the Chri/m, is call'd CHRISMA-
TION : This the generality of the Romijh Divines hold to
be the next Matter of the Sacrament of Confirmation.
The Chrifmation in Baptifm, is perform'd by the Pried;
that in Confirmation by the Biihop: That in Ordination,
&c. is more ufually flyl'd Unffion. See UNCTION.
CHRISOM, CHRISMALE, was antiently the Face-
cloth, or piece of Linen laid over the Child's Head when
he was baptiz'd.
Whence, in our Bills of Mortality, fuch Children which
die in the Month are call'd Chrifoms ; and the Time be-
tween the Child's Birth and Baptifm, was call'd Chrifomus.
CHRIST, an Appellation ufually added to 7efus; and,
together therewith, denominating the Mejsiah, or Saviour
of the World. See Jxsus, and MESSIAH.
The Word in the original Greek  pisf, fignifies Anoint-
ed, of Xfi&, Inungo, I anoint.
Sometimes the Word ChriJi is us'd fingly, by way of A4n-
tonomafis, to denote a Perfon fent from God, an anointed
Prophet, or Priefi, ec.
Order of CHRIST, a Military Order, founded in 1318,
by Denis 1. King of Portugal, to animate his Nobles a-
gainfi the Moors.
Pope 7ohn confirm'd it in 1320, and appointed the
Knights the Rule of S. Bennet. Alexander VI. permitted
them to marry.
The Order became afterwards infenfibly reunited to the
Crown of Portugal; and the King took upon him the Ad-
miniffration thereof.
The Arms of the Order are, Gules, a Patriarchal Crofs,
charg'd with another Crofs Argent. They had their Refi-
dence, at firff, at Cafiromarin; afterwards they remov'd
to the City of 7'homar, as being nearer the Moors of Anda-
hy/a, and Efiramadura.
Chrift is alfo the Name of a Military Order in Livonia,
inflituted in 1205, by Albert Bifhop of Riga. The End
of their Inflitution was to defend the new Chriffians who
were converted every Day in Livonia, but perfecuted by
the Heathens.
They wore on their Clokes a Sword with a Crofs over it;
whence they were alfo denominated fBrothers of the Sword.
CHRISTIAN, Something that relates to Chrift. See
The King of France bears the Title, or Sirname of the
Moft Chriftian King, Rex ChriftianiJi'mus. The French
Antiquaries trace the Origin of the Appellation up to Grc-
gory the Great; who writing a Letter to Charles Martel,
occafionally gave him that Title, which his Succeffors have
fince retain'd. See TITLE.
Lambecius, a German, in the IlId Tome of the E1mpe-
ror's Library, holds, that the Quality of Moft Chriftian
was not afcrib'd to the antient French Kings, Louis le De-
bonair, &c. as Kings of France, but as Emperors of Ger-
many; but the French Hiflorians have refuted this Plea.
CHRISTIAN Religion, that inflituted by 7efus Christ.
CHRISTIAN Name, that given at Baptifm. See NAME.
CHRISTIAN Court, or Curia Chriftianitatis, is the Ec-
clefiaflical Jurifdidiion; in contradiflindion to Civil Courts,
which are call'd King's Courts, Curie !Domini Regis. See
CHRISTIAN is peculiarly and absolutely us'd for a Perfon
who believes in Chri fl, and is baptiz'd in his Name.
Kkk                    The

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