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Chambers, Ephraim, 1680 (ca.)-1740 / Cyclopædia, or, An universal dictionary of arts and sciences : containing the definitions of the terms, and accounts of the things signify'd thereby, in the several arts, both liberal and mechanical, and the several sciences, human and divine : the figures, kinds, properties, productions, preparations, and uses, of things natural and artificial : the rise, progress, and state of things ecclesiastical, civil, military, and commercial : with the several systems, sects, opinions, &c : among philosophers, divines, mathematicians, physicians, antiquaries, criticks, &c : the whole intended as a course of antient and modern learning

Analecta - Antimony,   pp. 83-109 PDF (20.2 MB)

Page 83

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ANALYSIS, in Logick, a Method of applying the Rule4
of Reafoning, to refolve a Pifcourfe into its Principles; ini
order to a Difcovery of its Truth, or Falflhood. See PRIM
Or, Aiudy/s is an Examination of Come Difcourfe, Proper
fition, or other Matteir by fearching into its Principles, and
feparating aid opening its Parts; in order to confider theni
more diflinctly, and arrive at, a more precife Knowledge of
The Word is Greek, dvdAwfo which literally fignifies, Reo
folution; form'd of Cic, and A-0) folvo, refolvo, I loofen, I
Analyl/s makes one great Branch or Species of Method;
called alfo Refolution.- See METHOD, and RESOLUTION.
ANALYSIS, in Mathematicks, a Method of folving, or re4
folving Mathematical Problems. See PkOBLEiM.
There are two general Methods of finding Truth in Mao.
thematicks5 Synthefis, and Analyfis.-A1nayfzs is the De-
mopliration, or Confideration of the Confequences drawn
from any Propofition3 in which a Man proceeds, till he
comes to fosne known Truth, by means whereof, he may be
able to give a Solution of the Problem. See RESOLTITION.,
The Method of Ainalyis confifls more in the Judgment
and readinefs of Apprehenfion, than in any particularRuler,
where pure Geometry is made uoe of, as it was among the.
Antients; but at prefent Algebra is principally ufed on this
Occafion, which furnifhes certain Rules to perform or arrive
at the End propofed. See ANALYTIC.
This Met hod, under its prelent Improvements, mull be
allowed the Apex or Height of all human Learning; being
the great Infirument or means whereby fo many furprizing
Pifcoveries have been of late Years made, both in Mathe.
maticks, and Philofophy. It furnifhes the modl perfedt In.
fiances, 4nd f amples of the Art of Reafoning; gives the
Mind a furprizing Readinefs at deducing and difcovering
Things unknown, from a few !L7ata; and by ufing Signs
for Ideas, prefents Things to the Imagination, which other-
wife feem'd out of its Sphere.  By this, Geometrical
Demonftrations may be wonderfully abridg'd; and a long
Series of Argumeptations, wherein the Mind cannot with-
out the utmosi Effort and Attention difcover the Connecliori
of Ideas, are hereby converted into fenfible Signs, and the
feveral Operation. requir'd therein, efte;ed by the Combi-
nation of thofe Signs. But what is yet more extraordinary,
by means of this Art, a Number of Truths are frequent-
ly exprefs'd by a fingle Line, which in the common way
of explaining and demonfirating Things, would fill whole
Volumes : Thus, by mere Contemplation of one fingle Line,
whole Sciences may fometimes be learnt in a few Minutes
time; which otherwife could fcarce be attain'd in many
nalyl/is, is divided, with regard to its Objea, into that
of Finites, and that of Infinites.
ANALYSIS of finite 0Qantities, is what we otherwife call
Specious Arithmetick, or Algebra. See ALG EBD A, and
ANALYSIS of Infnites, called alfo the New ANALYSIS,
is particularly ufed for the MetIhod of Fluxions, or Differen-
tial Calculus. See FLUXIONS, and CALCULUS.-See alfo
ANALYSIS, is alfo ufed in Chymiffry, for the decompound-
ing of a mixt Body ; or the Reduaion thereof into its Prin-
To analyze Bodies, or refolve 'em into their component
Parts, is the chief Obje&c of the Art of Chymiftry. See
The Analyfis of Bodies is chiefly efe!?ed by means of
Fire. See FIRE.
All Bodies, by a Chymical Analy./i's, refolve into Water,
Earth, Salt, Sulphur, and Mercury; tho every Body does
not afFord all thefe Parts, but fonie more, fome lefs, accord-
ing to the Kingdom they belong to. See ELEMENT.-See
The Analyrfs of Vegetables is eafy; that of Fouls, parti-
cularly Metals and Semi-metals, difficult. See VEGETABLE,
Some Bodies of the Foffil Tribe confifd of Particles fo ve-
.y minute, and fo firmly united, that the Corpufcles thereof
need lefs heat to carry them off, than to feparate 'em into
their Principles: So that the .naly/i's is impracticable in
Such Bodies.-Hence the difficulty of analy/lug Sulphur.
The Anatomical Difrecion of an Animal, is a kind of
4ualyfis. See ANAToMY, and DISSECTION.
ANALYSIS is alfo ufed for a kind of Syllabus, or Table
of the principal Heads, or Articles of a 'ontinued Difcourfe;
Iifpofed in their natural Order, and Dependency ..Alna0
is are more fcientifical than Alphabeticalnexes  ut are
Aef ufed, as being more intricate.             r
efides the antient kind of Anagram, there have bden
hew ones invented, as, the Afathematical Anagram, invent-
ed in x68o; by which the Abbot Catelan found, that, the
eight Letters of the Name of Lewis XIV. made Vrai
ieros, i. e. true Hero.
We are now likewife furni'hd with the Numerical A-
gram; where the numeral Letters (i. e. fuch as in the
Romang cyphering flood for Numbers) taken together, ac-
cprding to their numerical Values, exprefs fome Epocha:
Of which kind is that Diflich of Godart on the Birth of
the late Rench King, in the Year i638, on a Day wherein
there was a Conjunflion of the Eagle with the Lion's Heart:
eXorlens DeLpbln aEVIL     Corl IbyVe Leonis
c~refV gaLLos fpe LetltlaqVe refeClt.
NALECTA, a Greek Term, fignifying Colledion';
~ofr!Ayv, Igather.
Al l ElMMAl a Planifphere; or Projeflion of the
Sphere, on the Plane of the Meridian, orthographically
made, by frait Lines ands Ellipfes; the Eye being fuppofed
to be at an infinite Diftaiicei and in the EafX or Wefd
Points of the Horizon. See PLkANi8Pi1ERE, PROJECTION,
ANALEMMAi, is alfo ufed for an Alrolabe; or kind of
InfIrument, confifling of the Furniture of the fame Projec-
tion, drawn on a Plate of Brafs or Wood; with in Ho-
rizon or Curfor fitted to it. See ASTROLABE.
Its ufe is for finding the Time of the Sun's rifing and
fetting, the Length of the longefi Day in any Latitude, and
the Hour of the Day.
The Analemma is alfo of confiderable ufe among Diali [Is,
for laying down the Signs of the Zodiack, with the tlength
of Days, and other Matters of Furniture, upon Dials. See
The Word is derived from the Greek drvcr.4, of 4'vysA-
Ody, refumo.
ANALEPTICKS, in Medicine, Refioratives; or Reme-
dies proper to retlore the Body, when wafted or emaciated,
either by the Continuance of a Difeafe, or the Want of
The Word is Greek, 'Aramrir1xaix, derived of 'A&A6q43vO,
I re-efrablijh, reftore.
ANALOGY, a certain Relation, Proportion, or Agree-
ment, which feveral Things, in other refipefs different, bear
to each other.-Such is that between the Bull in the Hea-
vehs, and the Animal fo called on Earth.
The Word is Greek, 'Adagio; which the Latins ufually
render by Comparatio, and Proportionalitas: And hence,
among Geormietricians, Analogy' is frequently ufed for a Si-
militude of Ratio's; called alfo Proportion. See PROPoR-
Reafonings by Analoy may ferve to explain and illufirate,
but not to prove any thing; yet is a great deal of our phi-
lofophizing no better foundcd. See SiMILITUDE, PuiLOSO,
In Matters of Language, we fay, New Words are form'd
by Analogy, i. e. new Names are given to new Things,
conformably to the eflablilh'd Names of other Things of the
like Nature and Kind. See LANGUAGE, and WORD.-
The Difficulties and Obfcurities in a Language, are chiefly
to be clear'd up by Analogy. See ETYMOLOGY.
the Schoolmen define Analogy to be a Refemblance,
join'd with fome Diverfity: Its Foundation, according to
them, is laid in the Proportion of feveral Things, confider'd
as that Proportion proceeds upon different Confiderations. See
Thus, a found Animal, a found Food, and a found Pro-
pofition, agreeing in this, that they have a common Deno-
mination, but the Reafon or Quality whereon the Denomi-
nation is founded, different5 are faid to have an 'Analogy, or
to be analogous.
Accordingly, Analogous Things are defined to be fuch as
have a common Same, but the Thing immediately figni-
fhed by that common Name, different; yet with fome Cor-
refpondence or Relation difcernible therein. See GENERAL
Philofophers ufually diflinguifh three Kinds of .4nalogy,
viz.-of Inequality, where t e Reafon of the common De-
nomination is the fame in Nature, but not in Degree or
Order: In which Senfe, Animal is analogous to Man, and i
Brute.-Of Atfributio&; where, tho the Reafon of the r
common Name be the fame, there is a difference in its ha- .
bitude or refpeat thereto: In which Senfe, Healthy is analo- f
gous both to a Man, and an Exercife.-Of Proportiona-
lity; where, tho the Reafons of the common Name do
really differ, yet they bear fome proportion to each other:
In this Senfe, the Gills of Fifhes are faid to be analogous to
the Lungs in terrefirial Animals: and thus, the m  and Q
the UnderJfanding are faid to bear an Analogy Ireach  d
ANALOGISM, ANALOGISMUS, in Logick, an Argu. I1
ment from the Caufe to the Effect. See CAUSE, wC.
11 I
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