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Chambers, Ephraim, 1680 (ca.)-1740 / Cyclopædia, or, An universal dictionary of arts and sciences : containing the definitions of the terms, and accounts of the things signify'd thereby, in the several arts, both liberal and mechanical, and the several sciences, human and divine : the figures, kinds, properties, productions, preparations, and uses, of things natural and artificial : the rise, progress, and state of things ecclesiastical, civil, military, and commercial : with the several systems, sects, opinions, &c : among philosophers, divines, mathematicians, physicians, antiquaries, criticks, &c : the whole intended as a course of antient and modern learning

Secondine - series,   pp. 41-60 PDF (19.9 MB)

Page 41

iii1 ]
r Plitlets. For if the Orbit be eccentrical; it mnay
k. that the Satellite Mall be farther off from the
ry One in the Syzygies, and fo move flower than it
at the Quadratures; And when this is the Gak,
le Sateiiite's Orbit is not a Circle concentrick to
wary Orbit, but an Ellipfis, in one of whole Fo-
gusS4 the Primary Orbit is placed; then, the Motion of the
Sate/lite will be fo diffurbed by the Sun, that as it runs
intbits Orbit, the Aptes of the Orbit fhall be moved
tonetinles in Confequentia, and lonietimes in Antecedentia
(whereas the Nodes and Appls of the primary Planets
are at reft)- (3.) When the Plane of the Satellite's Orbit
is inclined to the Plane of the Primary Orbit, the Line of
the, Nodes of the Secondary Orbit will be moved in Ante-
ctdeutii, with an Angular Motion, and an unequal Velo-
tity, for it will recede moft 1wiftly, when the Nodes are
in Quadrature to the Sun; after which, it will' move
flower, and at the Time of the Nodes being in the Syzy-
gies, will be perfectly at reft. (+.) The Inclination
Alto of the Plane of the Secondary Orbit, to the primary
tne, will be continually varying, and will be greateft,
when the Nodes are in the Syzygies with the Sun, and
li s(cetetisparibus) when they are in the Quadratures;
ar.d trom the Time of the Nodes being in the Syzygies,
to the Quadratures, it will be always decreafing, and from
theTilme of their being in the Quadraturesto the Syzygics,
it will be always' increafing, and all thofe Irregularities,
whether in any ecceatrick or concentrick Orbit, will al-
ways be Something greater, when the Satellite is in Con-
junaion with the bun, than when he is in Oppofition
tohim. See PLANET.
SECRETARY, an Officer, who, by Order of his
Mailer, writes Letters, Difpatches, and other Initruments,
which he renders Authentic by his Signature. Of thefe
there are feveral Kinds; as, Secretary of the King, or of
State; Secretary of the Lord Chancellor i Secretary of
War. &c. The King's Secretaries were anciently call'd
King's Clerks and Notaries. As for the Name of Se.
tary, it was at firif applied to fuch as being always near
King's Perfon, received his Commandsj and were call'd
ks of the Secret; whence was afterwards form'd, the
r-d Secretary; Regi a fecretis: And as the great Lords
e to their Clerks the Quality of Secretaries; thofe who
aded the King, were call'd, by way of Diflinaion,
rtaries of the Commands; Regi a Mandatis. This con-
ed till the Reign of our Henry VIII. 5659, when; at
Treaty of Peace between the French and Spaniaris,
former obferv'd, that the Spanifb Minifters, who
ted for Philip II. called themnelves Secretaries of
e. Upon which the French Secretaries des Commnan-
mets, out of Emulation, alfumed the fame Title;
-h thence pafled into Fngland.
ECRETARIES of State, Officers attending the King,
the Receipt and Difpatch of Letters, Grants, PeNi
s, and many of the mott important Affairs of the King-
n, both Foreign and Domeftick.
'ill the Reign of King Henry VIII. there was only one
etary of State ; but then Bufinefs increafing, that
ice appointed a Second Secretary; both of equal Power
t .  L  1s sn Z       Ad.t5Lb _ ofcquln w
rity, and both itiled fJrncilpat Secretaries of
fore Queen Eliiabeth's Time, they did not fit
)uicil-Board; but that Princefs admitted them
ces of Privy Counfellors; which Honour they
L ever lince, and a Council is never, or at leail
n, held without one of them. On the Union of
.id Scotland, Queen Anne added a Third Secre-
account of the great Increafe of Bufinefs,
to BYritain, is equally and difltindly ma.
[I the Three, although the latter is frequent-
Becretary of State for North Britain: They have
ir Management and Diredion, the moil confi-
Faiwrs of the Nation, and are obliged to a con-
dance on the King: They receive and difparch
:ones to their Hands, be it for the Crown, the
he Militia, Private Grants; Pardons, Difpenfa-'
as likewife Petitions to the Sovereign, which,
, are returned to the Secretaries for Anfwer,
they difpatch according to the King's Com-
Direfion. As to Foreign Affairs, they are
,to Two Provinces comprehending all the King.
Nations which have any Intercourfe or Bufinefs
t Britain ; each Secretary receiving all Letters
(Tes from and making all Difpatches to the
nces and States comprehended in his Province:
rifion flill fubfifs, notwithlfanding the Addition
d Secretary. Ircland and the Plantations are
Direltion of the Elder Secretary, who has the
Province. Of thefe Three Principal Secre-
Two for Soutwb Bitsin, hate each Two Under.
and one chief Clerk  And the other for NOrtb
Bfritain one Under-Secretary, and one chief Clerk, with
an uncertain Number of other Clerks and Tranflators, all
wholly depending of them.
The SECRETARIES of State have the Cuftody of that
Seal, properly called the Signet ( See SIGNET) and the
Diredion of the Signet Oflice; wherein are Four Clerks
employ'd, who prepare fuch Things as are to pafs the
Signet, in order to the Privy or Great Seal. All Grants
figned by the King are returned hither, which, tranlcrib'd,
are carried to one of the Principal Secretaries of State, and
feal'd, and then called Signets, which being direcded
to the Lord Privy Seal, are his Warrant. On the Secre-
taries of State, is likewife dependant another Office, call'd
t'he Paper OjFce, wherein all Public Writings, Papers,
Matters of State, Lc. are preferved. See PAPER OFFICE.
All the Under Secretaries and Clerks are in the Choice of
the Secretary of State, without Referve toany Perion; the
former of which receives Orders and Dire6lions from-
them, for writing Dilpatches, Foreign and Domeflick,
which they give to the Chief Clerk, who difiributes thedi
to the Under-Clerks.
SECRETARY of an Dnbatl'y, is a Perfon attending an
EmbafTador; for the writing of Difpatches relating to the
Negotiation. There is a deal of Difference between the
Secretary of the Ernba/y, and the Ambaflador's Secretary;
the laft is a Donieftick or Menial of the Amb4ffador; the
firft a Servant or Minifler of the Prince. See EMBASSADOR.
SECRETION, in Medicine, the Ad, whereby the
feveral Juices, or Humours in the Animal Body, are fepa-
rated from the Blood, by means of the Glands.
In the Bodies ol Animals, we obferve a great Number
of Juices of different Natures, viz. the Blood, Lympha,
Saliva, Stomach.liquor, inteftinal Juices, Panchreatit
Juice, the Bile, Urine, &c. Now, the Blood is the gene.
ral Source of all; and from it they are all Secerned by
particular Organs, called Glands. The Manner, wherein
this Secretion is effefed, has been greatly enquired into in
thefe laft Ages; though not with the greatefd Succefs.
The Ancient Phyficians, indeed, contented themfelves to
affert certain particular Virtues or Faculties inherent
in the feveral Vifcera; whereby they were determined
to feparate one Liquor rather than another: without
troubling themselves much about the Manner wherein it
was done. But the Moderns, according to the Genius of
their Philofophy, muff have this Point clear'd, and the
Modus of Secretion rendered intelligible. Hence, as the
exceeding Smallnefs of thef Organs prevented any regular
Search, they have imagined various Manners of expiain-
ing them.
Some, full of the Eff:es they have obferved from Fer-
mentations, maintain, that there are Ferments in the feveral
Parts; by Aid whereof, certain Kinds of Particles mix'd in
the Blood, are Separated therefrom; after the lame Man-
ner as we fee in AIvjt, or new Wines from which, while fer-
menting, certain Parts are detach'd in form of Scum. But
this Opinion has fo many Inconveniencies to grapple with-
al, that'tis almofi univerfally abandoned. See FERMENT.
Others confider the Glands as kinds of Sieves, whofe
Holes having different Figures, will only let pafs certain
Particles or Molecules, whole Figures refemble thofe of
the Holes: but the Falfity of this Hypothefis was fooo
found out; and it was thought fufficient to fix foine Pro-
portion between the Diameters of the Pores and of the
Molecules that were to pars through them, to account
why very fubtile Parts Ihould pals through the Glands,
through which the Coarfer could not pafs. Yet this Opi-
hion was not found perfe tly fatisfadory:  lor othis Sup-
pofition, the moft Subtile Parts of the Blood muff pafs in
fuch Quantity through the largeR PVores, that there would
not be enough left to furnifi the little ones with what
t'hey needed: And for the fame Reafon, thofe Parts whofe
Pores are biggefi, ought to furnih Liquors much fuller of
fubtile Parts than thofe whofe Pores are fimaller, which yet
is contrary to Experience. For the Serofity feparated in
the Kidneys, under the Name of Urine, confifs of Parts
much fubtiler and lmaller than the Bile Separated in the
Liver: Why then don't this Serofity efcape in the Liver?
the Pores whereof mufl be much greater than thofe of
the Kidneys. See BILE.
This Inconvenience many Naturaliffs being aware of;
has made them have recourfe to Imbibition (if the Word
may be allowed us for want of a better). They maintain,
then, That befide8 the different Diameters of the Pores,
'iis required that the feveral Parts be already imbued or
moitlen'd with a Liquor like to that they are io filter*
This Opinion is rather the Refult of Reafon than of Expe-
riment, and the Maintainers hereof, well pleas'd they hWd
fomething to fatisfy their Reafon withal, never trophy
themfelves whether it were true: Till M. 97   1 fell hr.
'EL]        Dr*ei
tL~~~~ }W i   vac
S E C.

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