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Chambers, Ephraim, 1680 (ca.)-1740 / Cyclopædia, or, An universal dictionary of arts and sciences : containing the definitions of the terms, and accounts of the things signify'd thereby, in the several arts, both liberal and mechanical, and the several sciences, human and divine : the figures, kinds, properties, productions, preparations, and uses, of things natural and artificial : the rise, progress, and state of things ecclesiastical, civil, military, and commercial : with the several systems, sects, opinions, &c : among philosophers, divines, mathematicians, physicians, antiquaries, criticks, &c : the whole intended as a course of antient and modern learning

Hook - hyacinth,   pp. 250-269 PDF (18.6 MB)

Page 250

H 0 P
alls ofF from the Bone. - This may be remedy'd by Care
and proper Application; a new Hoof being procurable, if
the Coffin Bone, -kc., be not hurt.
Horfes fornetimes caft their Hoofs by reafon of fome Prick,
Stub, foundring, furbating, or other Accident, that caufes
an Impofihumation in the Foot; fo that the Hoof, and fome-
times the Coffin Bone, being fpungy and eafily broken,
fall off in large Pieces. The laft when it happens is de-
Hoo-[cund, is a fhrinking in of an Horfe's Hoof on the
Top, and at the Heel which makes the Skin flare above
the Hcof, and to grow over the fame.
It befals an Horfe divers ways, either by keeping him
too dry in the Stable, by firait Shoeing, or by fome unnatu-
ral Heat after foundering.
HooF-hurt. --- In labouring Beafes, efpecially Oxen, if
the Hoof be hurt with a Coulter or Share, it may be cur'd
by a Salve of Pitch and Greafe mixkl with Powder of
Brimllone, diflolv'd together, and with an hot Iron melted
in the fere Hoof or Clee.
HooF-100ren'd, is a Diffolution or dividing of the Horn or
Coffin of a Horfe's Hoof from the Flefh, at the fetting on
of the Coronet.
If the parting be round about the Coronet, it comes by
means of founderin g; if in part, then by a Prick of fome
Channel-nail, Quitter-bone, Retreat, Gravelling, Cloying,
or the like.
The Signs of being loolen'd by foundering, is its break-
ing firfi in the fore Part of the Coronet, right againft the
Toes; becaufe the Humour always defcends towards the
Toe. --- If it proceeds from pricking, graveling, or the like,
the Hoof will loofen round about equally, even at firf. ---
If occafion'd by a Quitter-bone, or Hurt on the Coronet, it
will break right above the grieved Part, and rarely be feen to
go any farther.
HooF-fwell'd, is an Infirmity that Sometimes befals young
Horkes, when they are over-rid, or wrought hard, which
makes them fwell in that Part, by reafon of the Blood
falling down and fettling there i which if not fpeedily re-
mov'd will beget a wet Spavin.
HOOK in Angling, Lec. See ANGLING, CC.
HOOKS, in Buildings, Eec. are of various Sorts; fome
of Iron, and others of Brafis.
If. Armour Hocks, which are generally of Brafs, and
are to lay up Arms upon, as Guns, Muskets, half Pikes,
Pikes, Javelins, E&c.  2f. Cafrment Hooks.  30. Chimney
Ilooks, which are made both of Brafs and Iron, and of
different Fafhions: Their Ufe is to fet the Tongs and Fire-
Thovel againfl. 40. Curtain Hooks.  50. Hooks for Doors,
Gates, Lec. 60. Double Line Hooks, large and finall. 70.
Single Line Hooks, large and finall. 80. Tenter Hooks of
various Sorts. See TEN TE P.
HOOK-jpins, in Architeaure, are taper Iron Pins, only
with a Hook-head, to pin the Frame of a Roof or Floor
HOOP, a Meafure of a Peck. See PEcK.
HOP, or Hops, a Plant of the reptile Kind, whofe
Flower is a principal Ingredient in Beer, and other Malt
Liquors. See BREWING. See allb BErE and MALT-
The Hop creeps like Snake-weed, unlefs it find Pales or
Shrubs to hang to; or unlefi they who cultivate it, plant
Poles for the Purpofe. -- Its Stem is long, flexible, rough,
and hairy. --- Its Leaf indented like that of the Vine, and
cover'd with a kind of prickly Down like that of the Cu-
cumber. Its Flowers are of a greenifli Yellow, resembling,
both as to Form and Size, thofe of the Female Elm; and
grow in a kind of Bunch or Clutter. In this Flower is a
blackifh bitter Grain contain'd, which is the Seed of the
In the Spring time, while the Bud is yet tender, the
Tops of the Plant being cut off, and boil'd, are eat like
Afparagus; and found effeaual to loofen the Body : The
Heads and Tendrils are good to purify the Blood in the
Scorbutus, and moll cutaneous Difeafes: Deco~tions of the
Flowers, and Syrops thereof, are of tife againft peffilential
Fevers: Juleps and Apozems are alfo prepar'd with Hops,
for Hypochondriacal and Hyflerical AfFeEtions, and to pro-
mote the Menfes.
The Propagation and Culture of Hops, being a Point of
fome Nlicety, as well as great Advantage, we fhall lay down
a little Syflem thereof. -- 'Tis certain there is nothing in all
the rural Employments, that, under prudent Management,
turns to more account; very large Effates having been
rais'd by this Commodity in a few Years paff. - Switzer
tells us, he has known Ground yield 301. per Annum per
Acre, planted therewith: To fay nothing of the great
Number of Poor that are employ'd therein, viz. in the
Planting, Soiling, Digging) Houghingi Poling, Tying, Pick-
ing, feC.
250 )
c0lture of Hops, awd Hop Gardens.
Hops are of divers Kinds: Mortimer reckons four, viz.
the 'wild Garlic Hop, which is not worth propagating; the
long and fquare Garlic Hop, which, thoi valuable, yet on
account of the Rednefi towards the Stalk, does not bear the
bell Price; the long white Hop, which is the molt beautiful
and fertile; and the oval Lbp. Another Author diflin-
guifhes the Hops to be cultivated into the white and grey
Binds; the latter being a large fquare Hop, more hardy,
and bearing a plentifiller Crop than the former; tho' it
does not ripen fo early.
For the Soil of Hops. - There is fcarce any but may
ferve, except honey, rocky, and fliff Clay Ground: The
beft, however, is that which is light, deep, and rich; which
will be the better if Sand be mix'd with it: A black Gar-
den Mould is alfo excellent. If the Ground be cold, fifF,
and four, the bell Means of Improvement is to burn-beat it.
Mortimer adds, that in Kent, where they efleem new Land
bell for Hops, they plant their Hop Gardens with Cherry
Trees and Apple Trees, at a good Diflance ; that when the
Land is paft the bell for Hops, (which happens in about ten
Years) the Cherry Trees may begin to bear; and 30 Years
after, when the Cherry Trees are fpent, the Apple Trees
may be in PerfeaLion.
For the planting of Hops. -- The Ground is firfl to be
prepar'd by tilling it the Beginning of the Winter, either
with the Plough or Spade. In Oflober, (and fometimes,
tho' rarely, in March) they proceed to plant; marking out
the Places where each Hillock or little Plantation is to be.
Some plant in Squares, Checquer-wife, which is the moft
convenient Form, where they intend, in the Courfe of the
Tillage, to plough with Horles between the Hills: But the
bell Form for the Hop, as well as the mol pleafing to the
Eye, is the £Quincunx. See QUINCUNX.
If the Ground be poor, or fiif, 'tis necefrary fome good
Mould, or elle a Compofl of Manure and Earth, be laid in
Holes a Foot fquare, in the feveral Places where the Hills
are to be. -- The Dillance of the Hills in dry hot Ground
may be fix Foot; but in moill and rich Ground, fubjea to
bear large Hops, eight or nine.
For planting, the largefl Sets are to be chofen, eight or
ten Inches long, having each three or four Joints. Thefe to
be fet in Holes, made for the Purpofe, one at each Corner of
a Hole, and a Fifth in the Middle, raifing the Earth two
or three Inches about.
For the dreffing of Hops. --- If the Hop-Ground be old,
and wore out of Heart, they find it convenient to dig about
them, toward the Beginning of each Winter, and take
away a Quantity of the old Earth; its Place to be fupply'd
with what is fatter and frefher. --- If the Hops be in good
Heart, Manuring and Pruning is mofl advilable. In order
to this, they pull down the Hills, and undermine all about,
till they come near the principal Roots. This done, taking
off the Earth from the Roots, they find by the Colour, Ujc.
which are new Shoots, and which old ones; and cut off all
the new ones. --- When the Roots are thus drefs'd, the new
Mould or Manure to be apply'd.
For the Poling. --- The Time is when the Hops begin to
appear above Ground: The Number and Dimenfions of the
Poles to be adjulled to the Dillance of the Hills, the Na-
ture of the Soil, and Strength of the Hop. --- To prevent
Houtiing, the Poles are to be made to lean outwards; and
particularly toward the South, to receive more of the Sun's
Beams; it being Matter of Obfervation, that a leaning
Pole bears more Hops than an upright one.
A4s to tying. .-- When the Hops are got two or three Foot
above Ground, the next Bufinefs is to condua and tye them
to fuch Poles as are empty, and at a proper Difiance for
them. ---They are to be ty'd with wither'd Ruffles, or
Woollen Yarn; but not fo clofe as to hinder their climbing
up the Poles: Two or three Strings may fuflice for a Pole.
This Operation to be attended to in April and May.
About Midlummer, when they ceafe to run in Length,
and begin to branch, fiuch of them as are not yet got up to
the Tops of the Poles, 1hould have their Heads nipp'd off,
or elfe' be diverted from the Pole, that they may branch the
better ; which is more for the Increafe of the Hop, than its
extending in Length.
Sornetitmes in May, after Rain, the Hills are to be made
up with a Hoe, or Spade, or by ploughing; which will be
a Means to defiroy the Weeds: And 'tis neceffary, if the
Spring or Summer prove dry, to water them twice or-thrice
in a Seafon.
Hops blow toward the latter End of >71y ; and the for-
ward ones are ripe by the Clofe of gtuft. - Their Ripe.
nefs is difcover'd by their fragrant Scent, their changing of
Colour, being eafily pull'd, and by the brownilh Colour of
the Seed.

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