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Chambers, Ephraim, 1680 (ca.)-1740 / Cyclopædia, or, An universal dictionary of arts and sciences : containing the definitions of the terms, and accounts of the things signify'd thereby, in the several arts, both liberal and mechanical, and the several sciences, human and divine : the figures, kinds, properties, productions, preparations, and uses, of things natural and artificial : the rise, progress, and state of things ecclesiastical, civil, military, and commercial : with the several systems, sects, opinions, &c : among philosophers, divines, mathematicians, physicians, antiquaries, criticks, &c : the whole intended as a course of antient and modern learning

H - head,   pp. 197-217 PDF (19.3 MB)

Page 197

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Is the 8 th Letter of the Alphabet, and the
6th Confonant.    See LETTER    and AL-
Varro, de Re Rutca, L. III. C. i. calls
tne Ui amaclzus. And Martianus Capella
lays it is pronounced by a gentle Contradion of the Trachea.
-Hence it has been difputed, whether or no the h be
a real Letter.
Some will only have it an Afpiration, or Spirit, in Regard
its Sound is lo weak. And accordingly the Greeks, now
a-days at leafi, do not place it in the Line of the other
Letters, but put it over the Head of the following Let-
ter: Tho' it fliould feem  they antiently wrote it in the
fame Line with the rell.
The Latin Grammarians, as they were religious Imita-
tors of the Greeks, have on their Authority generally
rejeaed the hi;  and the Moderns have herein followed
the Latins.
But we have already {hewn that the h, like all the
other Afpirates, from the Time it is aspirated, and for
this very Reafon that it is afpirated, is not only a Letter,
but a real Confonant; it being a Motion, or EfFort, of
t'ie Larynx, to modify the Sound of the Vowel that
follows; as is evident in the Words Hallebard, Hero,
HollandX, &c. where the Vowel e, is apparently differently
modified from  what it is in the Words Endive, Eating,
Elet7, &c. and fuch Modification is all that is effential
to a Confonant. See CONSONANT.
Upon the whole, the H  is either a Letter, or S and Z
are none; thofe being no more than hiffing Afpirations:
And they who exclude the h from among the Letters,
as conceiving it only a Mark of Afpiration, might as well
exclude the Labial Confonants b andp, and fay they are
only Marks of certain Motions of the Lips, Wc.     See
The H, then, is a Letter and a Cofifonant, of the
Guttural Kind, i. e. a Confonant, to the Pronunciation
whereof, the Throat concurs in a particular Manner, more
than any other of the Organs of Voice. See GUTTURAL.
'Tis true, in many Words beginning with h, the Afpira-
tion is very weak, and almoft infenfible; the h in thofe
Cafes, not doing its Office: But it does not ceafe to be
a Confonant on that Score, more than various other Con-
fonants, which we write, but do not pronounce; as the
k in Phyfick, &c. and feveral other Letters, particularly in
the Hebrew, French, &c.
Nor does it ceafe to be a Confonant, becaufe it does
not hinder the Elifion of the foregoing Vowel, when ano-
ther Vowel follows in the fubfequent Word; for then rt
would undergo the fame Difqualification.
Monf. Menage difilinguifhes two Kinds of hi the one
an Afpirate, which he allows a Confonant; the other a
Mute, which he confiders as a Vowel. -Now, 'tis certain,
the afpirated h is a Confonant; but the Mute h is no
Vowel, as having no peculiar or proper Sound diflind
from that of the Vowel, or Diphthong, immediately follow-
ing it. See VOWEL.
When the h is preceeded by a c, the two Letters to-
gether have the Sound of the Hebrew V, with a Point
over the right Horn; as in Charity, Chyle, UIc.
In moft Words derived from the Greek, and beginning
in that Language with the.Letter XX the ch which be-
gins them     in Englih, has generally the Sound of a   k,
as in Echo, Chorus, &d. tho' it is fometimes foften'd a
little, as in Cherfone/rs, &c.
After ap, the h is always pronounced together with thep,
like an f, as in Phrafes, Philifins, Phlegm, Phlebotomy,
Philofophy, Phoceans, &c. - Mofi Words of this Cla~s,
are either proper Names, or Terms of Art, borrow'd from
the Greek, or the Oriental Languages; and wrote in
Greek with a p, and with a a in the others. - In an-
tient Authors we frequently meet with h put inflead of
as haba, for faba; but this is principally obfervable
in the Spanfb Tongue, where, moit of the Words bor-
row'd from the Latin, beginning with an f, take the h
in lieu of it: As hablar lor fabuari; habo for favses;
7bady for fatum.
The Ifpera, or lharp Accent of the Greeks, which is
the fame with our h, is alfo frequently changed for an s;
as, task Sal; j ;br, Septem   X 6'3 Sex; WandSerpo ; iipovj
Semi:; Pk. Sus, 5$c. - The b is alfo ufed for fome other
Letters enumerated at large by Paffierat, de Litterarum
inter fe cognatione   5 permutatione.
Antetly, the H    was put for Ck; thus, of Chlodoveus
-was form'd Hiudevicus, as 'tis read in all the Coins of
the IX th and  X th Centuries; and it was on this Ac-
¢ount, that they wrote ludo~.vicus with an H. -  In Courfe
pf Time, the   Sound of the 0 being   m~uch  weaken'd, or
entirely fupprefs'd, the H was dropt, and the Word was wrote
Ludovicus. In like Manaer we read Hlotaire, Hlouis, &c.
Fa. Lobiveau, will have this Difference to have arofe
from the Differences in the Pronunciation. - Such, fays
he, as could not pronounce the Guttural, wherewith thofe
two Words begin, fubitituted a c for it; and they who
pronounced it fo, wrote it after the fame Manner: But
fuch as were accuflom'd to pronounce it, wrote it likewife.
- He might have added, that fuch as could not pronounce
the Guttural, at length abfolutely rejeded it, and both
wrote and fpoke Louis, Lothaire, &c.
Some learned Men have conjedured that the H fhould
have been detach'd from the Name; and that it fignified
Lord, from the Latin Herus, or the German Herr.
Much as the D, which the Spaniards prefix to their proper
Names, as D. Phelizpe for DZon PhiliP. - But - as it
is likewife found before the Names of fiveral Cities, 'tis
more probable the Letter was there ufed to denote the
rough harfh Pronunciation of the antient Franks.
The H is fometimes alfo found prefix'd to the C ; as
Hcarolus, Hcalenda, &c. for Carolus, Calende, &c.
Among the Antients, the H was alfo a Numeral Letter,
fignifyiig zoo, according to the Verfe.
H quoque ducentos per fe dejignat habendos.
When a Dalh was added a Top, H, it fignified two
hundred Thoufand. - See what has been obferved on this
Subje57, under the Letter E.
HABAKKUK, or HHA BAKIKlU,one of the twelve lefter
Prophets whofe Prophecies are taken into the Canon of
the Old Teflament. See PROPH ET and PROPHECY.
The precife Time is not known when Habakkuk pro-
phefied i but from his prediding the Ruin of the 7ezvs,
by the Chaldeans, it may be concluded he prophefied be-
fore Zedekiah, or about the Time of Alanalfes. - His
Prophecy only confils of three Chapters.
The Name is wrote in the Hebrew with n, hheth;
and fignifies a Wrefiler, or Grappler. The Greek Tran-
flators call him Ambakomrez.
HABDALA, or HABHDALAH, a 7ewiJh Ceremony,
pradtifed among the People, every Sabbath-Day Evening.
Towards the Clofe of the Sabbath, when the Stars be-
gin to appear, each Mailer of a Family lights a Torch,
or Flambeau, or, at leafi, a Lamp with two Wicks.- A
little Box of Spices is prepared, or a Glafs of Wine taken;
then finging, or rehearfing a Prayer, and bleifing the Wine
and the Spices, they all fmell them, and after a few Ce-
remonies perform'd about .the Torch, or Lamp, they cafl
a little of the con crated Wine into the Flame; every Body
tails; and thus they break up, wifhing each other nor
good Night, but good Week.
The Word is Hebrew, and literally fignifies Separation:
It is form'd of bND, badal, to feparate, divide i the Ce-
remony being look'd upon, as the Divifion or parting of
the Sabbath from  the reit of the Week.  It was efla-
blifh'd to prevent their being too hafily in ending the
HABEAS Corpus, in Law, a Writ, which a Man in-
dicled for a Trefpafs before the Juilices of Peace, or
in a Court of Franchife, and imprifoned for it, may
have out of the King's Bench, thereby to remove himfelf
thither, at his own Coils, to anfwer the Caufe at the Bar
The Order in this Cafe, is, firfl to procure a Certiorari,
out of the Chancery, diredted to the isid Juflices, for re-
moving the Indidment into the King's Bench; and upon
that to procure this Writ to the Sheriff, for caufing his
Body to be brought at a certain Day.
HABEAS Corpora, is alfo a Writ, that lays for bringing
in a Jury, or fo many of them, as refufe to come upon
the venire jacias, for the Trial of a Caulb brought to
Iff-ue. See JURY, i2Jc.
HABENDUM, a Word of Courfe in a Conveyance. - In
every Conveyance are two  principal Parts, the Premiqfs,
and the Habendum: The Office of the firfe is to ex.
prefs the Name of the Grantor, the Grantee, and she
Thing granted.
The Habendum is to limit the Eflate, fo that the se-
neral Implication, which, by Confirudion of Law, paffth
in the Premnifes, is by the Hlabenduum controlled and
qualified. - As in a Leafe to two Perfons; the Habe zdum
to one for Life, alters the general Implication of the
Jointenancy in Free-hold, which fhould pafs by the Pre.
mikTes, if the Habendum were not. See CONVEYANCE.
HABERE facias Sefinam, a Writ Judicial, which lies
where a Man bath recovered Lands in the King's-Court,
direded to the Sheriff, commanding him to give him the
Seifin thereof See SEtIsN.
*D d   d                   .                   a
&_  i] V!W
A    '   -  '  Z,   i

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