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Chambers, Ephraim, 1680 (ca.)-1740 / Cyclopædia, or, An universal dictionary of arts and sciences : containing the definitions of the terms, and accounts of the things signify'd thereby, in the several arts, both liberal and mechanical, and the several sciences, human and divine : the figures, kinds, properties, productions, preparations, and uses, of things natural and artificial : the rise, progress, and state of things ecclesiastical, civil, military, and commercial : with the several systems, sects, opinions, &c : among philosophers, divines, mathematicians, physicians, antiquaries, criticks, &c : the whole intended as a course of antient and modern learning

Guet - gyromancy,   pp. 191-198 PDF (7.1 MB)

Page 191

GUET, a French Term of War, fignifying Watchb par-
ticularly ufed for a Perfon polled as a Spy in any Place, to
have an Eye thereto, and give Notice of what paffes. See
GURT is alfo ufed for a Corps de Garde polled at any
Paffiage; or Cowpany of Guards who go on the Patrol. See
Some Officers are exempted from Guct and Guard, i. e.
Watch and Ward.
In the fame Senfe they fay Guet de Nuit, Night Watch:
Not deGuet, Watch-Word: GdeiRoyal: Guet Bourgeoife,&c.
The Chevalier de Guet, is the Officer who commands the
Guet Royal, or Royal Watch.
GUEULE, in Archite&ure. See GULA.
GUIDON, a fort of Flag, or Standard bore by {he King's
Life-Guard; being broad at one Extreme, and almotl
pointed at the other, and flit or divided into two. See
The Guidon is the Enfign or.Flag of a Troop of Horfe-
Guards. See GUARD.
GUIDON is alfo the Officer who bears the Guidon.
The Guidon is that in the Horfe-Guards, which the En-
fign is in the Foot. See ENSIGN.
The Gaidon of a Troop of Horfe takes place next below
the Cornet.
GUIDONS, GUIDONES, or Schola Gnidonum, was a Com-
pany of Priefts, eflablifhed by Charlcmaign at Rome, to
condudE and guide Pilgrims to 7ertafil/e, to vifit the holy
Places; to a~fff them in cafe they fell fick, and to perform
the laft Offices to them in cafe they died.
GUILD-HALL, or GILD-HALL, the great Court of
Judicature for the City of London. See HALL.
In it are kept the Mayor's Court, the Sheriffs Court, the
Court of Huffings, Court of Confcienec, Court of Common-
Council, Chamberlain's Court,&)c. See MAYoa's-COURT,
Here alfo the Judges fit upon NifZ prias, &c.
GUINEA, a Gold Coin ltruck, and current in Eng/and.
The Value or Rate of Guineas has varied: It was firf{
firuck on the Footing of 2o Shillings i by the Scarcity of Gold
it has fince advanced to 2.i Shillings and 6 Pence; but is
now funk to 2I Shillings.
The Pound Weight Troy of Gold is cut into Forty-four
Parts and an half; each Part makes a Guinea. See GOLD.
This Coin took its Denomination Guinea, by reafon the
Gold whereof the firfi were firuck, was brought from that
Part of Africa called Guinea; for which Rearon it likewife
bore the Impreffion of an Elephant.
GuINEA-Peppqr. See PEPPER.
GULA, in Anatomy, the Gul/et; or that Conduit by
which Animals take down Food into the Stomach. See
GULE, GUEULE, or GOLA, in Architedure, a wavy
Member, whofe Contour refembles the Letter S; called by
the Greeks Cymatium, q. d. a little Wave, and by our WVork-
men an Ogee. See CYMATiuM and OGEE.
This Member is of two Kinds, retla and inverJa:
Thefirft, and principal, has its Cavity above, and Con-
vexity below. This always makes the Top of the Corona
of the Cornice, jetting over the Drip of the Cornice like
a Wave ready to fall.
It is called Gula retla, and by the French Doncine.
Sometimes it is abfolutely called the Entablature, as being
the firfi or uppermoft Member thereof.  See DoUcINE,
The fecond is jufl the reverfe of the former, its Cavity
being at the Bottom; fo that it appears inverted, with re-
gard to the former. This is ufed in the Architrave, and
lometimes in the Cornice, along with thi former, only fepa-
rated by a Reglet.
Some derive the Word from the Refemblance thefe Mem-
bers bear to the Gula, or Throat of a Man: Others from
the Herald's Term Gules; as fuppofing the Moulding form-
ed from the antient manner of wearing their Garments,
which confifled of Slips or Swaths, alternately Fur and
Stuff of various Colours; the Intervals between which, were
called Goles or Guales.
GULES, in Heraldry, fignifies the Colour Red. See
The fame Colour, in the Coats of Noblemen, is, by fome,
called Ruby ; and in thofe of fovereign Princes Aifars: but
this is no ffandingPraclice. See MTALPR ETIOUS STON E,&C.
In Engraving, Gules is extrefs'd by perpendicular Strokes
drawn from the Top of the Efcucheon to the Bottom, with
the Letter G.
This Colour is reputed a Symbol of Charity, Valour, Hardi-
nefs, Generofity; and reprefents Blood Colour, Cinnabar and
true Scarlet. It is the Erfi of all Colours ufed in Armory;
and is of that account, that antiently it was prohibited any
Perfon to wear Goles in his Coat Armour, unlefs he were a
Prince, or had Permifion from the Prince. Spelman in his
-G U L
Afpilogia, fays this Colour was particularly honour'd by the
Romans, as it had been before by the 'rojans; and that
they painted the Bodies of their Gods, and of their Gene-
rals that triumph'd, with Vermillion-Under the Confuls,
the Roman Soldiers wore Red; whence they were denomi-
nated RAu/att. 7ohn de Bado Azwreo adds, that the Red
Garment, which the Greeks call Phenician, and we Scar,
let, was firfl ufed by the Romans, to prevent feeing of the
Blood ifl'ue from Wounds in Fight.
In eftet, /ules has always been efleem'd an Imperial
Colour; the Emperors were cloathed, fhod, and had their
Appartments furnifh'd with Red: Their Edi&s, Difpatches,
Signatures, and Seals, were of Red-Ink, and Red-Wax;
whence the Name Rabricks. See RuBRIC.
Fa. Monet derives the Word Gales, Gueules, from the
Hebrew Galud, and Guludit, a reddiih Pellicle or Skin a-
pearing on a Wound when it begins to heal: But F. Afene-7
firier reproaches him, that there were no fuch Words in the
Hebrew Tongue. This, however, is not true: All the
Eaftern Languages, the Hebrew, Chaldee, Syriac, and
~rabs, fay '11. Gheled, for Cutis, vPellis; when the 4ra-
bic Ga/ld. And in the general, the Word Gules fignifies
Red among modf of the oriental Nations: The Arabs and
Perffans give the Name to the Rofe.
Others, with Nicod, derive the Name Galles from GuLe,
the Throats of Animals, being generally Red) whence
the Latin Cafculium, of the Greek xoxxo5, Scarlet Grain.
GULPH, or GULF, in Geography, an Arm or Part of
the Ocear. running up within the Land.-Such is the Gulpb
of Venice, called alfo the Adriatic Sea, the Ga/pb of Lyons,
the Ga/lph of Mexico, of Florida, &c. See OCEAN.
A Gulph is firialy diflinguifhed fromn a Sea, in that that
the latter is larger. See SEA. From a Bay, or Sinus, it
is again diflinguilhed by its being greater than the fame.
See BAY.
Some will have it effential to a Gul', to run into the
Land thro' a Streight or narrow Paffage. See STP.EIGHT.
The Sea is always moft dangerous niear Ga/pbs, by rea-
fon of the Currents being penn'd up by the Shores. The
Word is form'd of the Greek ox;xroc- which Gafichart again
derives from the Hebre'w DT., Gob. Du Cange derives it
from the barbarous Latin Gulfum or Ga/fus, which fignifles
the fame Thing.
GUM, GUMMI, a vegetable Juice exfuding thro' the
Pores of certain Plants, and there hardening into a tenaci-
ous tranfparent Mafs. See PLANT.
Gum is properly one of the Juices of the Bark: It is
drawn thence by the Sun's Warmth, in Form of a glutinous
Humour; and by the fame Caute [is afterwards inipiffated,
concoaed, and render'd tenacious
The Charaaer of Gums, whereby they are diflinguifhed
from Refins and other vegetable Juices, is, that theyare
diffoluble in Water, and at the fame Time inflammable by
In the general they are more vifcid, and lefs firiable, and
generallydifolublecin any aqueousMenflruum; whereasRefins
are more fulphurous, and require a Spirituous Difiolvent.
oerhaave confiders a G~inz as a fort of faponaceous Fat;
which befide its oily Principle in common with a Refin,
has fome other Ingredient that renders it mifcible with Wa-
ter. See RESIN.
GUMS are different, according to the different Trees,
Roots, Ec. they ouze from: Some Authors diffinguifh them
into Aqueous, and Refinous Gums: The firft, thofe diffolu-
ble in Water, Wine, and the like Fluids i The fecond, thofe
only diffoluble in Oil.
To thefe two fome add a third anomalous Kind, viz.
thofe foluble with much Difficulty either in Water or Oil.
Among the Clafs of Gums are ufually ranked,Gum-Anima,
.Arabic, Gutta, Adraganth, Ammoniac, A/fa Fatida, Bdel-
lium, Balm, Ben join, Camphor, Copal, Elemy, Frankincenfe,
.Euphorbium, Galbanum, Lacca, Manna, Myrrh, Oliba-
numn, Sagatenunm, Sanguis Draconis, Sarcocolla, Stages
Storax, lacamabacha, flurpentine. See each defcribed un-
der its proper Article.
fl'1eoplrafitvs fpeaks of a way of multiplying Plants, per-
form'd per Lacbrymas, by means of the Gam or Refin;
but Agricola takes this to be only pradicable where there
are Seeds in the Gum.
GuM-Anima, or Animi, is a refinous Juice ouzing front
a Tree by the Portugueze called Courbari, growing in di-
vers Parts of America.
This Gum is ver' hard and transparent, of an agreeable
Smell, not unlike Amber: It neither difolves in Water nor
Oil, and confequently is not properly accounted a Gumn. In
lieu of this, they frequently fubilitute Copal.
GuM-Arabic, call'd alfo Theb4ic, Sarracenaic, Babyloni#iO,
and Aecbantine, from the Places or the Tree which produce
it, is the Juice of a little Tree growing in Egypt, of the
Cafta Kind, called in Latin Acacia f/olis Scorpioides Legri-
mninofa. 'Tis Very tranfparent, glutinous upon the Tongues
almoll infipid to the Tafte, and twifled fomnewhat in form
ner of a I\rortm                                  I

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