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Chambers, Ephraim, 1680 (ca.)-1740 / Cyclopædia, or, An universal dictionary of arts and sciences : containing the definitions of the terms, and accounts of the things signify'd thereby, in the several arts, both liberal and mechanical, and the several sciences, human and divine : the figures, kinds, properties, productions, preparations, and uses, of things natural and artificial : the rise, progress, and state of things ecclesiastical, civil, military, and commercial : with the several systems, sects, opinions, &c : among philosophers, divines, mathematicians, physicians, antiquaries, criticks, &c : the whole intended as a course of antient and modern learning

Golden - guest-takers,   pp. 171-190 PDF (19.1 MB)

Page 171

( '7' )
a thoufand airy Piojc6s for an Univerfal Remedy. See
In ecff&, 'tis probable the Aabs and Alchemiis werii
only brought to attribute all thefVirtues to Gold, from their
perceiving certain Qualities therein, which they fuppofed
it mull communicate to other Bodies. Thus, e. gr. Gold
being commonly faid to be incapable of being defiroyed;
'tis hence concluded to be propet to preferve animal Mat-
ters, and defend them from PTtrifaffion: Which is jufl as
teafonable as fome Phyficians prescribing the Blood of an
AfiTes Ear as an appealing Remedy, by reafon the Afs is a
very peaceable Animal. See POTABLE Gold.
GOLD, in Heraldry, is one of the Metals . more properly
call'd by the French Name Or. See METAL, and OR.
GOLDEN, fomething that has a relation to Gold, or
confifis of Gold, is valuable like Gold, or the like. See
GOLDEN BULL, Bulla AUrea, fee explain'd under the Ar-
ticle BULL.
GOLDEN Fleece,in the antient Mythology, was the Skin, or
Fleece of the Ram, upon which Phryxus and Hella are fup-
pos'd to have fwam over the Sea to Colchos; and which be-
ing facrific'd to fupiter, was hung upon a Tree in the Grove
of Mars, guarded by two Brazen-hoof'd Bulls, and a mon-
fIrous Dragon that never flept ; but taken, and carried off by
Yafon, and the Argonauts. See ARGONAUT.
Many Authors have endeavour'd to fhew that this Fable
is an'Allegorical Reprefentation of fome real Hiflory.
Order of the GOLDEN FLEECE, isa Military Order infi-
tuted by Philip the Good, Duke of Burgundyin 1429. See
It took its Denomination from a Reprefentation of the
Golden Fleece, bore by the Knights on their Collars, which
confilded of Flints, and Steels. The King of Spain is now
Grand Mailer of the Order, in Quality of Duke of Bur-
gundy: The Number of Knights is fix'd to 3 I.
'Tis ufually faid to have been inflituted on occafion of an
immenfe ProAt which that Prince made by Wool: Tho',
others will have a Chymical Myflery couch'd under it, as
under that famous one of the Antients, which the Adepti
contend to be no other than the Secret of the Elixir, wrote
on the Fleece of a Sheep.
Oliver de la Marche writes that he had fuggefled to Phi-
lip I. Archduke of 4uftria, that the Order was inflituted by
his Grand-father Philip the Good, Duke of Burgundy, with
iew to that of fafon i and that 5ohn Germain, Bifhop of
Ctalons, Chancellor of the Order, upon this occafion made
him change his Opinion, and alfur'd the young Prince that
the Order had been inituted with a View to the Fleece of
Gideon. Bilhop of tournay, Chancellor likewife of the
Order, pretends that She Duke of fBurgundy had in View
the Golden Fleece of 7afon, and 37acob's Fleece, i. e. the
fpeckcled Sheep belonging to this Patriarch, according to the
Agreement made with his Father-in Law Ldban. Which
Sentiment gave Birth to a great Work of this Prelate in two
Parts: In the firil, under the Symbol of the Fleece of _a-
fon is repreented the Virtue of Magnanimity, which a Knight
ought to pol~hfs; and under the Symbol of the Fleece of
7acob, he reprefents the Virtue of Juflice.
Paradin is of the &ame Mind, and tells us that the Duke
defign'd to infinuate that the fabulous Conquell which 7afon
is faid to have made of the Golden Fleece in Colchos, was
nothing elfe but the Conqueft of Virtue, which requires a
Viaory over thofe horrible Monflers Vice, and our evil In-
GOLDEN NUMBER, in Chronology, a Number Ihewing
what Year of the Moon's Cycle, any given Year is. See
CYCLE of the Moon.
to find the Golden Number of any Tear fince Cbrift.
Since the Lunar Cycle commences with the Year before
our Saviour's Birth ; to the given Year add r: Then, divid-
ing the Sum by is ; the Sum remaining after the Divifion, is
the Golden Number required: If there be nothing remain-
ing, the Golden Number is z9.
Suppofe, the Golden Number of the profent Year
I7 5 were required: I7 z I --   I 76. And 1726 divided
by I9, gives a Quotient 9, and leaves a Remainder of I6,
the Golden Number of this Year.
The Golden Number is ufed in the .7lian Calendar, to Ihew
on what Days the New Moons fall. In Succeffion of Time,
however, it muff be obferv'd, that the Golden Numbers,
thro' the Defe& of the Lunar Cycle, recede, and do no longer
lhew the true Time of New Moons, Tic. See CALENDAR.
Hence, in the Grsgorian Reformation of the Calendar the
Golden Number is thrown out; and the EpaAt introduced in
lieu thereof See EL Ace.
GOLDEN RULE, in Arithmetick, a Rule, or Praxis, of
g U, and Extent in N the Art of Numbers; whereby
we find a fourth Proportional ti hrA ; Quantite given. Se
The Golden Rule is alfo call'd the Rule of I'hreer, ahd
Rule of Proportion. See its Nature ad Ulfe under the At-
tice RULE of   f re.                     . t  ., i .,
GoLDEIN'CAtF, was a Figure of a Calf, which thelIraelites
call in that Metal, and fet up in the Wildernefs, to wor-
h~ip, during AMofes's Abfence in the Mount; and which that
Legifiator, at his Return, burnt, ground to Powder, and
m^iIx'd with the Water the People were to drink of; as re-
lated Exodus xxxii.
The Commentators have been divided on this Article':
The pulverizing of Gold, and rendring it potable, is an 0-
peration in Chymifiry, of the laft Difficulty ; and 'tis hard
to conceive how it fhould be done at that Time, before Chy.
myflrg was ever heard of, and in a Wildernefs too. Many
therefore, fuppofe it done by a Miracle: And the reff, who
allow of nothing fupernatural in it, advance nothing but
Conjeftures, as to the Manner of the Procefs.
He could not have ufed fimple Calcinationf nor Amalga-
mation, nor Antimony, nor Calcination; nor is there one of
thofe Operations, that quadrates with the Text.
M. Sthall has endeavour'd to remove this Difficlty. The
Method Mofes made Ufe of, in making his Aurum potalile,
according to this Author, was the fame with that which now
obtains; only that inflead of Tartar, he made ufe of the
Fgyptian Natron, which is common enough throughout the
Eafl. See POTABLE Gold.
GOLOPS, in Heraldry, are Roundles of a Purple Co.,
lour. See ROUNDLE.
GOMPHOSIS, in Anatomy, a kind of Articulation. ofthe
Bones, wherein the one is chafed, or fitted immoveably into
the other, after the manner of a Peg, or Nail. See ARTI-
The Teeth are fet in the Jaws by Gomphofi's. See TEETii'
The Word is Greek, oqu  1f, form'd of 3iiO05, clavvy"5
a Nail.
GONAGRA, in Medicine, the Gout in the Knee. See
The Word is compos'd of 2'Nosvz Knee, and ot/, captura
GONARCHA, aTerm in the antient Dialling-fr. Per-
rault, in his Notes on Vitrrtius, lib. IX. c. 9. takes the Go-
norcha to have been a Dial drawn on divers Surfaces, or
Planes; fome of which being Horizontal, others Vertical,
others Oblique, S3c. forr'd divers Angles. Whence the Ap
pellation; from y6owv, Knee, or 70Vce Angle. See DIAL.
GONDOLA, a little, fiat Boat, verylong, and narrow;
chiefly ufed at Venice, to row on the Canals. SeeBOAT.
The middle-fized Gondola's are upwards of 30 Foot long,
and four broad: They always terminate, at each End, in a
very ffiarp Point, which is rais'd perpendicularly the full
Height of a Man.
The Word is Italian, Gondola. Du Cange derives it fromr
the vulgar Greek toy'iTqsxcc, a Bark, or little Ship, Lancelot
deduces it from 7,o6Ju, a Term in Atbeitus for a fort of
The Addrefs of the Venetian Gondoliers, in pafring their
narrow Canals, is verremarkable: There are ufually two'
to each Gondola  and they row by pulhing before them.
The Fore-man refis his Oar on the left Side of the Gondola:
The Hind-man is placed on the Stern, that he may fee the
Head over the Tilt, or covering of the Gondola; and refis
his Oar, which is very long, on the right fide of the Gondola.
GONFALCON, or GONFANON a Kind of round Tenti
bore as a Canopy, at the Head of the Procelfions of the
principal Churches at Rome, in Cafe of Rain; its Verge, or
Banner ferving for a Shelter, where there is not a great deal
of Attendance.
'GONORRHEA, or rather GONORRnEA in Medicine,
an involuntary Flux, or Dripping of Seed, or other Humor,
by the Penis; without EreUion, or Titillation. See SEEDr.
The Word is form'd of the Greek 2ovA, genitura, Seed*
and Pa. jfluo, I flow.-
The Gonorrhbea is of two kinds: The one Simple, the
other Virulent.
The Simple Gonorrhea, or that without Virus, or Mali-
gnity, takes its rife from violent Exercifes, and Strainings -
the immoderateUfe of hot Foods, a'ad pticularly, fermentel
Liquors, as Wine, Beer, Cyder, Tic. It is cured by indulg-
ing Refi, nourifhing Foods, Broths, tfc.
This Species is again divided into two ; the one Arue,
Conorrhea vera, wherein the Humor difcharged is real
Seed: The other Spurious, Gonorrhea Notba, wherein the
dripping Humor is not Seed, but a Matter from the Glands
about the Profttes. See PROsTATES.
This latter Kind bears fome Refemblance to the Flur
Abus, or Whites in Women; and frequently remain; a long
time, without much Diminution of the Patient's Strength.
Some call it a Catarrhal Gonorrborai Its Seat is in the
Glands of the Proftates, which are cither too:much re"*d,
or umceritd    a-el

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