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Chambers, Ephraim, 1680 (ca.)-1740 / Cyclopædia, or, An universal dictionary of arts and sciences : containing the definitions of the terms, and accounts of the things signify'd thereby, in the several arts, both liberal and mechanical, and the several sciences, human and divine : the figures, kinds, properties, productions, preparations, and uses, of things natural and artificial : the rise, progress, and state of things ecclesiastical, civil, military, and commercial : with the several systems, sects, opinions, &c : among philosophers, divines, mathematicians, physicians, antiquaries, criticks, &c : the whole intended as a course of antient and modern learning

Glade - gold,   pp. 150-170 PDF (20.4 MB)

Page 150

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G   taL A
In Gardening, a Defcent fomerimes begins in ualut, and
ends in Glacis.
The GLACIS of the Cornich is an eafy, imperceptible
Slope in the Cyrnaife of a Cornich, to promote thc Dfcent
and draining off of the Rain-Water. See CYMAISE.
GLACIS, in Fortification, is particularly ufed for that of
the Counterfcarp.
The Glacis of the Counterfcarp, or cover'd Way, is the
Sloping Bank that reaches from the Parapet of the Corri-
dor, or Counterfcarp, to the level Side of the Field. See
The Glacis is about fix Foot high, and lofes itfelf by an
infenfible Diminution in the fpace of ten Fathoms. See
GLADE, in Agriculture, Gardening, Cc. a Iift a, or
-openj and light Pairage, made thro' a thick Wood, Grove,
or the like, by lopping off the Branches of Trees along the
GLADIATOR, in Antiquity, a Perfon who fought with
naked Swords on the Arena, at Rome, to entertain the Peo-
The Gladiators were ufually Slaves, and fought out of
Neceffity; tho', fometimes, Freemen made Profeffion there-
of, like our Prize-fighters, for a Livelihood.
After a Slave had ferv'd on the Arena three Years, he
,was difimifs'd. See SLAVE.
The Romavs borrow'd this cruel Diverfion from the Afa-
ticks: Some fuppofe that there was Policy herein; the fre-
quent Co  bares of Gladiators rending to accuilom the Peo-
ple to defpife Dangers, and Death.
The Origin of fuch Combats feen^as to be as follows:
From the ear ief Times, we have any Acquaintance withal
in profane Hiflory, it had been the Cufloom to facrifice Cap-
tives, or Prifoners of War, to the Manes of the Great Men
who had died in the Engagement: Thus Achilles, in the
Iliad, L. XXIII. facrifices twelve young Trojans, to the
Manes of Patroclus; and in Virgil, L. XI. v. 8i. ZJneas
fends Captives to Evander, to be facrificed at the Funeral
of his Son Pallas.
In length of Time they came to facrifice Slaves at the Fu-
nerals of all Perfons of Condition: This was even elleemed a
neceirary Part of the Ceremony; but as it would have ap-
peared barbarous to have mafracred them like Beafls, they
were appointed to fight with each other, and do their bell
to fave their own Lives, by killing their Adverfary. This
feem'd fomewhat lefs inhutman, by reafon there was a Pof-
fibility of avoiding Death; and it only lay on themfelves,
if they did not do it. See FUNERAL.
This occafion'd the Profeflion of Gladiator to become an
Art: Hence arofe Mailers of Arms; and Men learn'd to
fight, and exercife therein.
Thefe Mailers, whom the Latins call'd Lanif Ki, bought
them Slaves, to train up to this cruel Trade; whom they af-
terwards fold to fuch as had occafion to prefent the People
with fo horrible a Shew.
5uniNs Brutus, who expell'd the Kings, is faid to have
been the firfl who honour'd the Funeral of his Father with
thefe inhuman Diverfions-They were at firil perform'd
near the Sepulchre of the Deceafed, or about the Funeral
File; but were afterwards removed to the Circus and Am-
phitheatres, and became ordinary Amufements. See Cia-
The Emperor Claudius refrain'd them to certain times,
but he foon afterwards annull'd what he decreed, and pri-
vate Perfons began to exhibit them at Pleafure, as ufual;
and fome carried the brutal Satisfa&ion fo far as to have them
at their ordinary Fealls. See FEAST.
And not Slaves only, but other Perfons would hire them-
felves to this infamous Office.
IThe Mailer of the Gladiators made them all firfi fwear,
that they would fight to death; and if they fail'd therein,
they were put to death, either by Fire, or Swords, Clubs,
Whips, or the like.
It was a Crime for the Wretches to complain when they
were wounded; or to alk for Death; or f7eek to avoid it,
when overcome: But it was ufual for the Prince, or the
People to grant them Life, when they gave no Signs of
Fear, but waited the fatal Stroke with Courage and Intrepi-
dity. Auguftus even decreed, that it Should always be
granted them.
From Slaves, and free'd Men, the wanton Sport fpread to
People of Rank and Condition; and Nero is related to have
brought upwards of 400 Senators, and 600 Roman Knights
upon the Scene; yet Domitian, that other Montler of
Cruelty, refined upon him, exhibiting Combats of Women
in the night-time.
Con] antine the Great is faid to have firil prohibited the
Comnbats of Gladiators, in the Eall; at leafi, he forbad thofe
condemn'd to death for their Crimes, to be employ'd here-
in: There being an Order bill extant to the Prnfeefus Pre-
torii, rather to fend them to work in the Mines in lieu
thereof: It is dated at Beryta in Phonicia, the firfl of Otto,
her 3a.
The Dme -ror iiooiui rWl fkrbad them at Aonz,
cafion of the Death of St.; 'eleWnachus, whof com i
of the Ea'l into Rome, At the time of one of thefe
tles, went down into the Afetial and used all his Endeavours
to prevent the Gladiators from continuing the Sport: Upotk
which the Speaators of that Carnage, fired with Anger,
floned him to death. i7hiodore'. H;E. Ecclef. Z. V. C. z6.
It mufl be obferv'd, however, that the Pratice was not
entirely abolilh'd in the Well before T'heodoric, King of the
Oft rogorhs.-Honorius, on the occafion firil mentioned, had
prohibited them; but the Prohibition does not feem to have
been executed. !libeodoric, in the Year I 50o abolilh'd then.
Some time before the Day of Battle, the Perin who pre-
fented the People with the Shews, gave them Notice there-
of, by Programma's, or Bills, containing the Names of the
Gladiators, and the Marks whereby they were to be diflin-
guifh'd; for each had his feveral Badge, which was msno
commonly a Peacock's Feather, as appears from the Scho-
liqflc of Yuvenal, on the I 58th Verfe of the IIIU Satyr; and
Srurnebius AdverfJ L. III c. 8.
They alfo gave notice what time the Shews would lads
and how many Couples of Gladiators there were : And it
even appears from the 52d Verfe of the Mth Satyr of the
lId Book of Horace, that they fometimes made Reprefenta-
tions of thefe Things in Painting; as is praaic'd among us,
by thofe who have any thing to Jhew at Fairs.
The Day being come, they began the Entertainment by
bringing two kinds of Weapons; the firit were Staves, or
wooden Files, call'd Rzides; and the fecond, effecive Wea-
pons, as Swords, Poniards, f'c.
The firil were call'd Arma luforia, or Exercitoria; the
fecond, EDecretoria, as being given by Decree, or Sentence
of the Pretor; or of him at whofe Expence the Speaacle
was given.
They began to fence, or flirmilh with the firfi, which
was to be the Prelude to the Battle: From thefe, when well
warm'd, they advanc'd to the fecond, with which they
fought naked.
The firil Part of the Engagement was called ventilate,
preludere; and the fecond, dimicare ad certum, or verris
armis pugnare: And fome Authors think with much Pro-
bability, that it is to thefe two kinds of Combat that St.
Paul alludes in the Pafage i Cor. ix. 26, 27. I fight, not as
one that beateth the Air; but I keep under my Body, and
bring it into Subjetlion.
I the Vanquilh'd gave up his Arms, it was not in tho
Viaor's Power, to grant him Life: It was the People, dur-
ing the time of the Republic; and the Prince, or People,
during the time of the Empire, that were alone impower'd
to grant the Boon.
The Reward of the Conqueror was a Crown, or a Branch
of the Lentisk Tree: Sometimes they gave them his Conge,
or difimifs'd him, by putting one of the wooden Files, or
Rudes in his Hand; and fomerimes they even gave him his
The Sign, or Indication whereby the Speaators fhew'd
that they granted the Favour, was, to fall the Thumb ; or
clench it between the other Fingers: And when they would
have the Combat finilh'd, and the Vainquilh'd flain, they
rais'd the Thumb, and direaed it towards the Combatants:
Which we learn from ßuvenal, Sat. II. v. 36.
The Gladiators challeng'd, or defied each other, by ihew-
ing the little Finger; which fame, during the Combat, was
to own themfelves overcome. Pliny, L. XXVIII. c. 2. Pru-
dentius, L. II. contra Symm. v. 1098. Horace, L. J. Ep. i8.
v. 66. Politian. Mifcell. c. 42. flurneb. Adverf. L. XI. c. 6.
Lipf/ Saturn. L. II. c. 2 2.
There were divers kinds of Gladiators, difinguifh'd by
their Weapons, Manner, and Time of fighting, bec. as,
The AnI~dabate, of whom we have already given an account
under the Article ANDABATME.
The Catervarii, who fought in Troops, or Companies;
Number, againfi Number. Lipf Lib. 11. c. z6.
The Confurmati, whom Authors mention as a Species of
Gladiators, the fame with the Rudiarii and Veterani;
founding the Opinion on a Paffage in Pliny, L. VIII. c. 7.
But Lipfius Ihews, that they have miflaken 7Pliny. Sa-
turn. Lib. II. c. s6. and Zurneb. Adverf: L. XXX. c. 6.
The Cubicularii, which are a little precarious, being
chiefly founded on a PaITage in Lampridius, in the Life of
the Emperor Commodus: Inter hfc habit  /idimnarii, vi-
ifimas imrolavit, in arena rudibus, inter Cubicularios Gla-
diatores pugnavit lucentibus aliqua.z2do mucronibus.
rurnebius reads Rudiarios, in lieu of Cubicrilarios, and
underfiands it of thofe who had been difmifs'd, and could
no longer be oblig'd to fight, except with Files.
Salmaflus reads Gladiator, and refers it to the-Emperor,
who fought not only on the Arena, and with Files, or blunted
In fruments; but at home, with his Servants, and Valets
de Chambre, and with, Sharps.

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