University of Wisconsin Digital Collections
Link to University of Wisconsin Digital Collections
Link to University of Wisconsin Digital Collections
History of Science and Technology

Page View

Chambers, Ephraim, 1680 (ca.)-1740 / Cyclopædia, or, An universal dictionary of arts and sciences : containing the definitions of the terms, and accounts of the things signify'd thereby, in the several arts, both liberal and mechanical, and the several sciences, human and divine : the figures, kinds, properties, productions, preparations, and uses, of things natural and artificial : the rise, progress, and state of things ecclesiastical, civil, military, and commercial : with the several systems, sects, opinions, &c : among philosophers, divines, mathematicians, physicians, antiquaries, criticks, &c : the whole intended as a course of antient and modern learning

Fridstoll - future,   pp. 101-112 PDF (11.3 MB)

Page 101

( 10I )
pence, As the Refiftance from Pre1lon mnay be fingle;
and as the fame always accompanies that arifing from the
Magnitude of the Surfaces; and is ufually much the more
confiderable of the two, when it does accompany it: For
thefe Reafons in mofl of the Experiments that are made,
it is the only one perceived, and the only one that need to
be confider'd.
But then, as 'tis poffible, in certain Cafes, for the Pref-
lion to be very flender; and the Number of Parts to be rub'd
very great: It mufl be own'd there are Cafes wherein the
FriCion follows very fenfibly the Proportion of the Sur-
For the Fridion of the Parts of Fluids, fee RESISTANCE,
and RETARDATION of Fluids.
FRICTION, in Medicine, and Chirurgery, the A&f of rub-
bing a difeafed Part with Oils, Unguents, or other Matters,
in order to cafe, relieve, and cure it. See UNGUENT.
Frifions are much ufed, especially abroad, in Venereal
Cafes; where they prefer the applying of Mercury exter-
nally, by way of Priffion ; to that of giving it internally to
raife a Salivation. See SALIVATION, and MERCURY.
There are alfo Frifcions with the Fleh-brrf7,, a linen
Cloth, or the Hand only: For the Effea of which lail, fee
Fri fions in the general, and of any kind, are a fort of
Exercife that contributes very greatly to Health; as they
excite and fir up the natural Warmth, divert Defluxions,
promote Perfpiration, open the Pores of the Skin, and car-
ry off Humors.
The FleJlbrttA, Dr. Cheyne obferves, is an Exercife moll
ufeful for promoting a full and free Perfpiration and Circu-
lation. Every Body knows the Effed of currying of Horfes;
that it makes them fleek, gay, lively, and adive; fo as to
be judg'd equivalent to half the Feeding.
This it can no otherwise effedff, but by affifring Nature to
throw off the Recrements of the Juices wh&h flop the free
Circulation; and by conflant Frittion, Irritation and Stimu-
lation, to call the Blood and Spirits to the Parts moft di-
fiant from the Seat of Heat, and Motion, and fo plump up
the fuperficial Mufcles. And the fame Effecs it would
have in other Creatures, and Man himfelf, if managed in
the fame manner, and with the fame Care and Regularity.
Perfons, therefore, of weak Nerves and Sedentary Lives,
would do well to fupply the Want of other Exercife with
fpending half an Hour, Morning and Night, in currying and
rubbing their whole Body, efpecially their Limbs, with a
Plelh-brufh. See EXERCIsE.
FRICTION, or FRIXION, in Chymifiry, is the fame with
what in Cookery we call Frying, vize. a Preparation of cer-
tain Matters in a Pan, with the Addition of fome unduous
thing, as Oil, Fat, fic.
The Frixion of Medicines is perform'd over a flow, mo-
derate Fire; and that of Foods over a quick one.
FRIDSTOLL, and FRrTHsTow, in our antient Writers,
fignifies a Seat, Chair, or Place of Peace. See SANCTU-
In the Charter of Immunities granted to the Church of
St. Peter in fork, by Hen. I. and confirmed A4n. 5. H. 7.
we read thus,-Rtuod fl aliquis vefano fpiritu agitatus di-
abolico a'fa quemquam capere prrfiumerit in Cathedra
lapidea juxta Altarc, quo4 A~nglici vocant Fridflol, i. e. Ca-
thedra quietudinis vel pacis; hujuls tam flagitioir facrilegii
enaendatio fsub null1o judicic erat, fub nullo pecunie numero
claudebatur, fed apudS Anglos Botelee, hoc eft, fine emenda,
Of thefe there were many others in England; but, the
moic famous was at Bcverly, which had this Infcri ption, Hec
fedes lapidea Freediloll dicitur, i. e. Pacis Caihedra, ad
quarn reus fugiendo perveniens, omninzodam habet fecuri-
tatem. Camb.
It fignifies alfo a Palace, which is ufually a priviledg'd
FRIEZE, or PRIZE, or FREEZE, in Architecdure, a
Member, or Divifion of the Entablature of Columns, by
the Antients call'd Zophoros. See FREEZE.
FRIGATOON, a Venetian Veffel, commonly us'd in
the Adriatick.
It is built with a fquare Stern, and without any Fore-mal[;
having only a Main-mafl, Miffen-mafi, and Bowfprit.
FRIGID, of the Latin frigidus, cold, is varioufly
A frigid Style, is a low, jejune manner of Diffion,
wanting Force, Warmth of Imagination, Figures of Speech,
Vec. See STYLE.
. FRIGID Zone, or Frozen Zone, in Geography. See
FRIGIDITY, is alfo ufed in the fame Senfe with Im-
totency; fee IMPOTENCY.
F FRIGORIFIC, in Phyficks; fomething that occafions
cold. See COLD.
Some Philotophers, particularly KGayTeindils anid other
Corpufcularians, denying Cold to be a mere Privation or
Abfence of Heat, contend that there are adual frigorific
Corpufcles, or Particles as well as fiery ones: Whence proceed
Cold and Heat. But the later Philofophers allow of no
other frigorific Particles, befide thofe nitrous Salts, which
float in the Air in cold Weather, and occafion Freezing.
F FRlPPERY, a French Term, Sometimes ufed in our
Frippery, or Fripperie, properly imports the Trade, or
Traffick of old fecond-hand Cloaths, and Goods.
The Word is alfo ufed for the Plece, where fuch fort of
Commerce is carried on, and even for the Commodities
The Company of Frippiersj or Fripperers at Paris, are
a regular Corporation, of an antient Standing, and make a
confiderable Figure among the Commufantes of that City.
FRIT, or FR ITT, in the Glars Manufafure, is the Mat-
ter, or Ingredients, whereof Glafs is to be made, calcined,
or baked in a Furnace. See GLASS.
A Salt drawn from the Afhes of the Plant Kali, or from,
Fern, mix'd with Sand, or Flints, and baked 'together,
make an opake Mafs, called by Glaffmen Frit; probably
from frittare, to fry; or by reafon the Frit, when melted,
runs into lumps like Fritters, called by the Italians, Fri-
By the Antients it was called Hammonitrum, or Anmo-
nitrum, of a'Mv. Sand, and viMMov, Nitre: Under which
Name it is defcribed by Pliny thus: Fine Sand from the
Volturnian Sea, tnix'd with three times the Quantity of
Nitre, and melted, makes a Mafs call'd n24m  onitrun ;
which being re-boiled, makes pure Glafs. liJI. Nat. L. 36.
c. 6.
Frit, Neri obferves, is only the Calx of the Materials
which make Glafs; which, tho' they might be melted, and
Glafs be made without thus calcining them, yet would it
take up much more Time. This Calcining, or making of
Frit, ferves to mix and incorporate the Materials together,
and to evaporate all the fuperfluous Humidity. The Frit
once made, is readily fufed and turned into Glafs.--
There are three kinds of Frits: The Firfi, Cryflal-rit?
or that for Cryftal Metal, made with Salt of Polverine and
The Second, and ordinary Prit is made of the bare
Afhes of Polverine, or Barillia, without extrafting the Salt
from  them.  This makes the ordinary white, orcryflal
The Third, is Frit for Green Glalfes, made of common
Allies, without any Preparation. This laft Frit will require
Io or 12 Hours baking.
The Materials in each, are to be finely powder'd, wafli'd,
and fierced i then equally mix'd; and frequently flirr'd to-
gether in the Melting Pot. For the reft fee GLASs, and
FRITHGILD, was antiently the fame we now call a
Guild, or a Fraternity, or Company. See GILD. .
FRIZF, or FRIEZE, in Architedure, a Part of the En-
tablature of Columtns, more ufually wrote, and pronounced
Freeze. See FREEZE.
FRIZE, or FREEZE, in Commerce, a kind of woollen
Cloth, or Stuff, for Winter Wear, being frized or nap't on
one Side i whence, in all Probability, it derives its Name.
Of Frizes, fome are crofs'd; others not crofs'd. The
former are chiefly of Englifh Manufadure: The latter of
Irish. See FaIZING.
FRIZING of Cloth, a Term in the Woolen Manufac~ury,
applied to the forming of the Nap of a Cloth, or Stuf,
into a number of little hard Burs, or Prominences, covering
almoft the whole Ground thereof.
Some Cloths are onlyfrized on the Back-fidee; as black
Cloths: Others on the right Side, as colour'd and rnix'd
Cloths, Rateens, Bays, Frizes  c.
Frizing may be perform'd two ways: One wfith the Rand,
i. e. by means of two Workmen, who condudf a kind of
Plank, that ferves as a frizing Infirumentc.
The other by a Mill, work'd either by Water, or a Horfe;
or fometimes by Men. This latter is efleem'd the better
way of fring ;* bay reafon the Motion being unifbrm, and
regular, the little Knobs of the Frizing are form'd more
equably, and alike. The SIrruure of this ufeful Machine
is as follows.
The three principal Parts are, The Frizer, or Crifper;
the Friing Table; and the fZrawer, or Beam.
The two fiSfi are- two equal Planks or Boards, each abut
ten Foot long, and fifteen Inches broade,   diTieng only in
this, that the Frizing Table Is lined, or cover'd with a kind
of coarfe Woolen Stuff, of a rough, flurdy Nap; and that the
Friser is incrutated with a kind of Cement, compofed of
*  C c          i   Glue,

Go up to Top of Page