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Chambers, Ephraim, 1680 (ca.)-1740 / Cyclopædia, or, An universal dictionary of arts and sciences : containing the definitions of the terms, and accounts of the things signify'd thereby, in the several arts, both liberal and mechanical, and the several sciences, human and divine : the figures, kinds, properties, productions, preparations, and uses, of things natural and artificial : the rise, progress, and state of things ecclesiastical, civil, military, and commercial : with the several systems, sects, opinions, &c : among philosophers, divines, mathematicians, physicians, antiquaries, criticks, &c : the whole intended as a course of antient and modern learning

Fish-garth - Fluids,   pp. 42-60 PDF (19.2 MB)

Page 42

V1 s
rOtis, and 'tenches will feed as well; but Perclt. are not for
it Stew in Feeding-time.
3f. As to the Venefits tat redound from the keeping of
Fijly, befides furnishing yout Table for your Friends, and
raifing Money; lour Land will be vafily imprbv'd, fo as to
he really worth, and yield mhore this way, than by any other
Employment whatfoever: For fuppofe a Meadow of a 1. per
Acre ; four Acres in Pond, will return every Year a thou-
'fand fed Carps, from the leaft Size, to fourteen or fifteen
Inches long ; befides Pikes, Perch, Tench, and other Fry:
The Carp are faleable, and will bring 6 d. 9ad. and per-
haps sa2. a piece, amounting in all to z 51. which is 61.
$ s. per Acre.
FISH-GARTH, according to Skinner, fignifies an En-
gine, to take Fijih; but it feems rather to fignify the Dam
or Wear in a River, where thefe Engines are laid and
For Garth, in the North, is flill ufed for a Back-fide, or
Fisn-Glue, fee ICHTHYOCOttA.
FisH-Ponds, Refervoirs of Waters for the Breeding,
Feeding, and Preferving of Fifb.
For thefe Ponds, 'tis agreed, thofe Grounds are befr,
'which are fall of Springs, and apt to be moorifh: The one
breeds them well, and the other preferves them from being
The Situation of the Pond is alfo to be confider'd, and
the Nature of the Currents that fall into it; likewife, that
it be refrelh'd with a little Brook, or with the Rain-water
that falls from the adjacent hilly Ground. Add, that thofe
Ponds, which receive the Stale and bung of Horfes and
Other Cattle, breed the largefl and fatteft Fib.
In making the Pond, obrerve that the Head be at the
loweft Part of the Ground; and that the Trench of the
Flood-gate or Sluice have a good fwift Fall, that it may not
be too long a-emptying.
If the Pond carry fix Foot of Water, it is enough, but it
muft be eight Foot deep, to receive the Frefhes and Rains
that lhould fall into it.
It would alfo be advantageous to have Shoals on the Sides,
for the RA to fun themrfelves in, and lay their Spawn on;
befides in other Places, certain Holes, hollow Banks, Shelves,
Roots of Trees, Iflands, &c. to ferve as their Retiring
Places. Confider farther, whether your Pond be a Breeder;
if fo, never expe&t any large Carps from thence; the Great-
nefs of the Number of Spawn overifocking the Pond,
For large Carps, a Store-Pond is ever accounted the bell;
and to make a Breeding-Pond become a Store-Pond, fee
what Quantity of Carps it will contain: Then put in all
Milters, or all Spawner's; whereby in a little Time you may
have Carps that are both large, and exceeding fat. Thus,
by putting but one Sex, there is an Impofilbility of the In-
treafe of them 3 yet the Roach will ndtwithilanding multi-
ply abundantly.
Referve fome great Waters for the Head-Quarters of the
Filj, whence you may take, or wherein you may put any
Quantity thereof. And be fure have Stews and other auxi-
liary Waters, fo as you may convey any Part of the Stock
from one to the other; foj to lofe no Time in the Growth
of the Fi´j, but employ the Water, as you do your Land,
to the belt Advantage.
View the Grounds, and find but fome Fall between the
Hills, as near a Flat as may be, fo as to leave a proper
Current for the Water: If there be any Difficulty in judg-
ing of fuch, take an Opportunity after fome fudden Rain,
or the breaking up of a great Snow in Winter, and you'll
plainly fee which way the Ground calls; for the Water will
take the true Fall, and run accordingly.
The Condition of the Place mufll determine the Quah-
tity of Ground to be cover'd with Water. For Example,
we may well propofe in all fifteen Acres, in three Ponds.
br eight Acres in two, and not lefs: And thefe Ponds Ihould
be plac'd one above another, fo as the Point of the lower
mhay almoll reach the Head or Bank of the upper; which
Contrivance is no leli beautiful, than advantageous.
The Head, or Bank, which by ftopping the .Current,
is to raite the Water, anid fo make a Ponid, muft be built
With the Clay and Earth taken out of the Pan, or Hollo*,
dugg in the lowefi Ground above the Bank; and that
Pan lould be t hap'd as an half Oval, whereof the Flat
tomes to the Bank, and the longer Diameter runs quare
from it. See BANKS for Fzj4-pondss and POND-Heas.
Royal FsHuis, fee ROYAL Fijes.
PIsats, in Affronomy, fee PiSCES4
FisnEs, in Heraldry, are of themselves of lefe Efeemn
Io a Coat Armout, than Beafis and Fowls, as being pofie.
fior thret in the Order of Creation: But they fometimes
becouie fo dignofied by t1he Perfons or Families, who bear
the   as to be preferable to Many Birds, and Beafss.
F  ~As re boruiidivers ways, Upright, Imbowe, Exended
l~norrt   Burouted Of ea~l     ther ; Therted, 2rian-
~~4edg~AL &            a
it F S
Lf I Ad
All FUijes born Feeding, hould be term'd  Coulr' g
Thote born direily Upright, fhould be term  Hautaut.
And thofe born Traverfe the Efcutcheo, Najanit.
FISHERY, a commodious Place for Fiing  or, a Place
Tvherein great Quantities of Filh are ca it. See Flsu, and
The principal Fifhcries of Europe, for Salnz0n, Hierring,
Cod, and Mackarel, are along the Coafis of England, Scot-
land, and Ireland: For Whales, about Greenland; For
Pearls, in the Ea0 and WeJi idies, &c.
The 11ery makes a principal Branch of the BritiJz
Commerce. A great Quantity of Veffels and Sea-'men are
employ'd therein; and befide what is fpent at home, above
0ooooo Pounds Sterling' is yearly return'd merely for
Herring, and Cod, exported to Spain, Ialy, feveral Parts
of the Mediterranean, and Iflands of the Archipelago.
Yet are ourCountrymen reproached, and with a good deal
of juffice, for their Remifsnefs in this Branch of Trade.
The advantagious Situation of our Coafis might be of im-
menfe Benefit to us, did not we let our Neighbours Ihare
with us therein. The SDutch, French, Hamburgers, &c.
come yearly in huge Shoals, and not only take the Fifh
from our own Doors; but fell them us for our Money,
when they have done.
Scotland fufI~rs incredibly on this Score: No Country in
Europe can pretend to rival them in the Abundance of the
fineftc Filh, wherewith their numerous Harbours, Loughs,
Rivers, $.,c. are incredibly Bored. In the River' Dee, 'tis
faid, an hundred and feventy Head of Salmon is not very
extraordinary for a fingle Draught of Net: And the pickled
Salmon fent hence is allowed the beft in Europe. The
Scottih Iflands, efjecially thofe on the Wefilern Side, do
certainly lye moff comrnodioufly for carrying on the Filhing
Trade to Perfeffion.
King Charles the Firfi began the Experiment, in Con-
juncrion with a Company of Merchants; but the Civil Wars
foon fet it afide. King Charles the Second made a like
Attempt . but having preffing Occafion for Money, he was
perfuaded to withdraw, what he had employ'd in the Fi-
Jhery; at which the Merchants, join'd with him, being dif-
pleas'd, did the like.
Since the Union, feveral Efforts have been made, to re-
trieve it; and there is now a Corporation fettled on that
footing, called the Royal Britijb ifJhery, though now in 4
very languifhing Condition, and ready to fink.
MtaIe Fliswritv. or Greetzland-RFishi&R..
This huge Fifh, we have elfe
caught in the North Sea. The la
Spitzberg, fome of them amount
in length. Thofe on the Coafis o
ty, or hundred; and thofe on the
the Mediterranean, the fmallefito
The 7utch have upwards of th
Whale Fifhery almoft to themfelv
one of the principal Branches of
The chief Merchants of the fevera
felves into a Body, for the carryir
Year a great Fleet of Veffiels to t
pofe. They attettpted to make
in Gronland; but not fucceeding,
Fishery about the Weilern Coafi
Latitude of 76 Deg. 4o Min. to 8
'This prefent Year I 7i 5. the EX
have begun to Ihare it with the,
nary Succefs they met withal in ti
any of their Neighbours, will no
fill in it.
To give fome Idea of the Ma
this Trade, we lhall here fuhjoin
Time obferv'd in the Whale fiji'4
ing; the Cargo and Euiage of
duce thereof.
The 2Di2fcipline is adjufled by a
filling of twelve Articles; the pr.
That in cafe a Filhing Veffel
Captain and Crew faved, the nex
take them in; and the fecond I
from the firfl: But that no Veflfe]
any of the Loading of a VeEfel
Effe&s of a lhipwrack'd Veffel, V
quilh'd, an other Captain Ihall El
Arrival in Holland he Ihall accoul
the Proprietors of the lhipwrack'
Pence&: That if the Crew defet
gall have no Claim to any of th
whole lhall go to the Proprietor.
when the E     's are faved and
have one Fourth thereof:  ha i
Whe Ee, eit XII be reputed4
or He -_ *  -7_

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