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Chambers, Ephraim, 1680 (ca.)-1740 / Cyclopædia, or, An universal dictionary of arts and sciences : containing the definitions of the terms, and accounts of the things signify'd thereby, in the several arts, both liberal and mechanical, and the several sciences, human and divine : the figures, kinds, properties, productions, preparations, and uses, of things natural and artificial : the rise, progress, and state of things ecclesiastical, civil, military, and commercial : with the several systems, sects, opinions, &c : among philosophers, divines, mathematicians, physicians, antiquaries, criticks, &c : the whole intended as a course of antient and modern learning

Fennel - fish,   pp. 21-41 PDF (20.0 MB)

Page 21

( 2i)
with the whole labyrinth, are corn-
art of the Os temporum, properly call'd
trofum. See LABYRINTEH, SC.
inel-feed, in Commerce, Ec. a longifli,
i one Side, and roundifh on the other;
not unlike that of Anis-feed - being the
Iliferous Plant of the fame Name, well
of the Commerce of the Druggifis and
effeem'd a Carminative, and us'd like
Winds in the Body; and correct Senna,
vegetable Purgatives.
Irong Water, or Brandy made of the
I call'd Fennel-Water. The Ingredients
Luorice, Brandy, and white Wine, which
; and to the Eflence thereof are added
;ar, and fweet Almonds: The whole
wenum Grecum, or Fennigreek, a me-
call'd, becaufe antiently brought from
tivated in Several Parts of Europe.
a Foot high: Its Leaves finall, and dif-
ke thofe of Trefoil. It yields a little
vhence arifes a long, pointed Pod, fhap'd
: Horn.
d is inclos'd in this Pod, which bears the
it felf, is lefs than Mufiard Seed, very
a triangular Form, and a trong dif-
hen new, 'tis of a yellow, gold Colour;
ly, or brown.
ower of there Seeds is effeem'd good to
i as fuch, is ufed in Cataplafms of thofe
in emollient Clyflers, Decoaions, and
age ufed in Inflammations of the Eyes
UDARY, or FEUDATARY, was an Of-
and authorized by the Mailer of the
abe prefent with the Efcheator, at the
and to give Evidence for the King,
ire and the Value thereof: To furvey
rd after the Office found, and rate it.
e Kings Widows their Ciowers, and re-
f Wards Lands. This Office is taken
r. 2.
tal Meafure for Liquids, ufed throughout
EUDUM, the fame with Fief, or Fee.
n Common Law, fignifies any Gift, or
irs, Caffles, Manors, Meiuages, Lands,
or immoveable Things of like nature,
fimple; that is, to him, and to his
he Delivery of Seifin, and the Poffielon
; whether the Gift be made by Deed,
iting, it is called the Deed of Feoff-
nt, the Giver is called the Feoffer, or
rence between a Feoffer, and a Donor,
gives in Fee fimple; and the Donor in
EL, and FEE.
ntiquity, a Feafi held by the Romans,
Frary, in honour of the Dead. See
n. L. 1. c. 13. refers the Origin of the
ta tpompilius. Ovid, in his afi, goes
for its Inflitution. He adds, that on
xcrifice was perform'd to the Goddefs
nd that the Perfons who officiated, were
tnded with a Number of young Girls.
Word from inferi, or from fero; on
carried to the Sepulchers of fuch, as
that Day render'd to.
from ferio, on account of the Viaims
bferves, that the Romans called Death
* the Word Feralia might arifo thence.
FER de Fourcbette, in Heraldry.
Croix a Fer de Fourchette is a Crofs,
having a forked Iron at each End,
like that formerly us'd by Soldiers, to
refi their Mulkets; by which it is
diflinguibh'd from the Crofs Four-
chee; the Ends whereof turn forked,
whereas in this, the Fork is fix'd on
the fquare End; as in the adjoining
f   li
FPER de Moulin, q. d. Iron of the Mill, is A
Bearing in Heraldry of the Figure adjoining.
It reprefents the Iron-Ink, or Ink of a Mill,
_ hich  flains the moving Millsftone.
- there are divers ways of bearing it: Thd
mofl ufual is that here reprefented.
It is born by the Name of Beveatbamnj and
alfo by the Name of flirncr.
FERD-wvit, in our antient Cufioms, A Pormulary, by
which the King pardoned Manflaughter, committed in the
The Word is form'd of the Saxbn Fird, Army, and TWitei
FERENTARIT, or FERENbIA'tII, a Term in Hiflory.
The Eerentarii among the Romans, were auxiliary Troops,
lightly arm'd5 their Arms being a Sword, Arrows, anda
Sling; which are much lefs cumberfome, than a Buckler,
Battle-ax, Pike, EWc.
The Name Ierentarii was derived a ferendo duxilio
hefe being auxiliary Forces: Tho' Varro thinks, they
might be fo called, by reafon, the Sling and Stones ferantur,
non tenentur.
We have alfo Mention of another fort of Ferentarii,
whofe Bufinefs was, to carry Arms after the Armies, and to
be ready to fupply the Soldiers therewith in Battle.
Lydius ufes the fame Ferentarii for the Cataphraai E-
quites, i. e. Cavaliers, arm'd Cap-a-pee.
FERIE, among the Romans, were Holidays; or Days
wherein they abfiain'd from Work.
The Eerie, or Dies feriati, were obferv'd and diflinguifh'd
chieflyl by Refi; whereas the Feafts, or Dies fefti, befide
a Ceffation from Labour, were celebrated with Sacrificed
and Games- fo that there were Ferie, which were not
Fal-days. ITho' Authors frequently confound the Ferie, and
Fefii. See FEAS&r, and FESTI DIES.
Others confound the Ferie with the Dies Ne-fafti, or
Non-Court-Days. See FAsTI Dies.
The Latin Leria, amounts to the Sabbath of the hebrews;
The Romans had divers kinds of Ferie: Their 1amnes,
at leaft the principal thereof, are, The zEfiivales, Summer-
Peri; Alnniverfarie, Anniverfary Ferie; torpitalitid
Eerie of the Stpc ts, and Cornpitq, or Crofs-ways; Concep-
tive, Votive Ferie, which the Magiflrates promis'd every
Year: Denicales, for the Expiation of a Family polluted by
the Death of any one5 Imperative, or Indiffive, thofe de-
creed by the Magifirate; 5Latine, the Latin Fcerie, infli-
tuted by larquin the Proud, for all the Latin People, a-
mounting to above fifty Nations; being celebrated on M;
Alba, in Memory of the Peace, concluded by 7iarquin, with
the People of Latiamr; Mejis Ferie, the Ferie of Harveff;
Paganales Eerie, or Paganalia, an Account of which is giveit
in its Place; Precidanee, which were, what we properly
call, the Vigils, ot Eves of the Peafis; 'Private, or Pro-
prie, thofe peculiar to the feveral Families; as the Fami-
lie Clandie, .Emilie, U7lie, &c. Publice, thofe obferv'
by all in general, or for the Publick Weal; Seme'nti-
vye, thofe held in Seed-time; Stative, thofe kept conflantly
to the fame Day of the Year; Saturnales, whereof we fhall
fpeak in their Places - Stultorum Ferie, or knirinalid, thyi
Eerie of Fools, held on the 17'h of February- Vitlorie
Eerie, thofe of Vi~lory, in the Month of Aug'un; Jinde-
miales, thofe of the Vintage, from the 20th of juguft, to
the I5tb of Otlober; Vulcani Ferie, thofe of Vulcan, which
fell on the 22d of May.
Fnxxx was alfo ufed among the Romans for FaIr Dajst#
by reafon it was the Cuforom to hold their Fairs, on Dies
feriati, or Holidays. Struvius Synt. Antiqq. Rom. C. IXm
fP. 425. 443. &c. See NuNDINA.
The Word Ferie, is ufually deriv'd a feriendis Vidimisl
Martinius fays, that Eerie diude flint velut b  eef. euj
dies facri, holy Days. Others obferve, that all Days in e-
neral, tho' they were not Feafi-days, were antiently call'd Fe-
fJ t or as Vojius reads it, Fefle; whence, according to thaf
Author, is form'd the Word Eerie.
FERIA is fiull retain'd in the Romijh Breviary, tho' in a
Senfe fomewhat different from the Ferie of the Antients.
It is applied to the feveral Days of the Week, beginning
with Sunday; -provided none of thofe Days be a Feall, or
Fait Day. Thus, Monday is the fecond Feria; q uefdaay
the third, IC.
Thefe are the ordinaty Ferie; befide which they have'
extraprdinary, or greater Ferie, viz. the three lafi Days of
Paffion Week; the two Days following Eafler Day, and
Whitfday; and the fecond Feria of  ogation.
The Word Feria, in this Senfe, is doubtless borrowea
from the antieht Feria, a Day of Red. Accordingly, Sun-
Jay is the firfi Feria: For antiently, all the Days of Bal
Week were accounted Feflival Days, by a Decree of Coo-
Jiammne; whence thofe feve= Days were Called Arie ; Sun-

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