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Chambers, Ephraim, 1680 (ca.)-1740 / Cyclopædia, or, An universal dictionary of arts and sciences : containing the definitions of the terms, and accounts of the things signify'd thereby, in the several arts, both liberal and mechanical, and the several sciences, human and divine : the figures, kinds, properties, productions, preparations, and uses, of things natural and artificial : the rise, progress, and state of things ecclesiastical, civil, military, and commercial : with the several systems, sects, opinions, &c : among philosophers, divines, mathematicians, physicians, antiquaries, criticks, &c : the whole intended as a course of antient and modern learning

Exchequer - Ezra,   pp. 359-380 PDF (19.8 MB)

Page 359

{,ckfl6~ge ari6s tht    EQyuER     is alfo aC        or Aprtient, In
he Wind are oft 'ei  ft      a   confifing of two Pat  the C   o
a+y of l4eriving the qead thelover Exchequer.
MIan here exchanges   The C       r;fEX  EQUER, is 'a Court, wher&ei
Rg     t   Uen  Money tried all Caufe  ting to the King's Treafury, or Reve-
ithh ': hfi         nue; as, to6"     Accounts, Disburfements, CuflomsFines,
as a Loan; from     WC. See TREAi  uRt5
ie Rifqiie, or. Dan-  It confifis of Seven Judges, viz. the Lord Trearurver,
and in 'the other, the Chancellor of the ,chequer, the Lord Chief  aron,
rm Intereft, in that and three other Biarons of the Exchequer, with one Cur-
the Time, which In- fitor Baron.  See CH ANCELLOR, GG.
The Lord Chief Baron is the principal Judge of the
Places for the Due, Court. See BARONS of the Exchequer.
one Sort, or Species,  The Court of Excequer is divided into two: The
iularly call'd Small one of Law, the other of Equity.
-Exchange, &c.        All Judicial Proceedings accordling to Law, are_{lyled,
I for the ?A4i, or    /Y    '       1 ..  -    An..... r..... .  C
,rofit, :llowed f theMonies    -ae ---                     - -     w -  HIU
viny~tJ  : J>UL WC: bU4,L t)VI ,LJUAIy InUIL In
alrof.tS alloG     the Monies advanced in any one's Be- the Exchequer Chamber,
is coram I'hefaurarzo, Cancel
half. SeeACis.      o                                  lario, U  Baroni1'us5
before the Treafurer, Charncelour,
ExCHANGE, is alfoapublic Place, in     f con'iderable And Barons.
Cities, wherein the Merchants, Negotiants, Agents, Bankers,  For a long Time
after the Conquefi, there fate in the
Brokers, Interpreters, and other Perfons concern'd in Corn- Exchequer, both
Spiritual and Temporal Barons of the
mnerce, meet, on certain Days, and at certain Times thereof; Realm: But of
later Times, there have fat in their Pla-
to confer, and treat together of Matters relating to Exv- ces other Judges,
who, tho' no Peers of the Realm, yet
changes,, Remittances, Payments, Adventures, Afrurances, retain the original
reightments, and other Mercantile Negotiations both by   The common Opinion
of our 'liflorians is, that this
Land and Sea.                                          Court was erected
by William the Conqvcrour, foon after
In Flanders, Holland, and feveral Cities of France, thefe his having obtain'd
the Kingdom; and that it took its
1Places are call'd Ziourfes; at Paris and Lyons, Places Form from  the Echequier,
or Scaccarium, eflablifh'd in
de Change5    and in the Hanfe Towns,      Colleges of Normandy long before
that Time.    In Effedt, the two
Merchants. See BURsE.                                  Exchequers have this
in common, that the Norman was
Thefe Afemblies are held with fo much Exaanefs, and the Supreme Court of
that Dutchy, or a general Affize
*perchants and Negotiants are fo indifpenfably required whereat all the great
Lords attended, to judge finally of
to attend at them; that a Perfon's Abfence alone, makes him  all Concerns
of the grepteft Importance; and was ambu-
be fufpe~ted of a Failure or Bankrupcy. See BANKRUPT.  latory: And that the
EngliJh Esrf bhqer was a (ourt of
The mofi considerable Exchanges in Europe, are that the highefi Jurifdition;
that the Aetes thereof were not to
of Amfterdam;    and that of London, call'd the Royal be examined by any
of the ordinary Courts; that it was
Xcianvge. See ROYAL Exchange.                          the Repofitory of
the Records of all the other Courts;
That of Antwerp was little inferior to either of them; and that it was to
be held in the King's Court, and be-
till the Port of that City was render'd impradicable by the fore him; and
that it was concerned in the Prerogative,
Jloianders, to bring the Commerce thereof to themfelves. as well as the Revenue
of the Crown.
Even in the Time of the antient Romans, there were     The immediate Profits
of the Crown, as of Franchifes
Places for the Merchants to meet, in moflt of the confider- Lands, Tenements,
Hereditaments, Debts, Duties, Accountsi
able Cities of Ad am       -_ t1-; At Rome, in the GCo-ds, Chattels, all
Disburfements, Seizures, and Fines,
Year of the City z 59, -459 Years before our Saviour, under impofed on the
Subje&, E2c. are within the Jurifdi-tion
{he Confulate of Appius Claudius, and' ubtrsh  Servi-lius, of the Exchequer.
And the King's -Attorney mav exhibi t
was call'd Co4egium         h     whereof we have frill Bills, fbr any matter
concerning -the King in inheritance
sQe Remains, call'd by the modern Romans Loggia, or Profits; fo alfo may
any Perfon, who finds himfi f
the Lodge; and now, uoually, the Place of St. George. aggrieved in any Caufe
profecuted againfi him  on Behalf
w  COLLEGE.                                             oF o the King, or
any Patent by Grant of the King, cx-
EXCHANGE, in Law, is the Compenfation which the hibit his Bill again theing'sAttorney,
    - toberelieved
Warrantor muft make the Warrantee, Value for Value, by Equity. See CouRT,
K:NG, U5C.
if the Land warranted be recovered from the Warrantee,    To this Court belong
two Offices, the King's Remem-
.33racdon. L. II.  See WARRANTY.                        brancer's Office,
and the Lord Treafurer's Remembrancer,
I'he King's EXCHANGE, is the Place appointed by the See REMEMBRANCER.
King for Exchange of Plate, or Bullion fOr the King's    Authors are divided
about the Origin of the Denomi-
coin. Thefe Places have formerly been divers; but now  nation of this Court,
Exchequer.  Do Caiige is of Opi-
there is only one, viz.  that of the Tower of London, nion, it came from
   a Chequer-wrought Carpet, covering
joyn'd with the Mint. See MINT.                        the great Table in
that Court; or from the Pavement of
Bill of EXCHANGE, is a Writing given by a Mer- the Court, which was Chequer-wife:
Others, from         the
chant, or other Negotiant, to procure a Sum  of Money  Accomptants in this
Office ufing  Cheqners, or Chefs-
to be paid the Bearer thereof, in fome diflant Place; in  Boards, in their
Computations:  Nricod, from  the Court's
Conlideration of a like Sum paid the Writer, by the Per- being compoIfd of
diflferent Qualities, as the Pieces or
fon in whofe Behalf the Bill is drawn. See BILL of Partitions in a Chefs-Board:
Others, by icafon People
,1écchnge, Spleaded here, ranged, as it were, in Battle array, as
What w      1e call RechP e, is the Due, or Premium of do at Chefs. Menage,
after Pithoa, &c, derives the Word
a fecond Exchanzge, when a Bill is protefted.  See RE- from the German, Schichen,
to Wend; by reafon this Court
CHANGE.                                               Succeeded the Commiffioners
ca l'd in ancient Titles, AOli
EXCUsHNGE-Brokers, are Perfons who make it their Dominici.      Spelman,
&c. derives it from  Schatz, which
1ulinefs to know the Alteration of the Courfe of Exchange, fignifies, Treafure:
Whence Po0ydore Virgil alfo writes
to inform Merchants how it goes, and to notify to thofe it, Scattarium, infilead
of Scaccoarzum. Lafily, Somner
who have Money to receive or pay beyond Sea, who are derives it from Schaen,
to ravifh,  which, according to
ersf   Perfions fpor the  Ech~anging and doing thereof  him, is the Charaaer
of the Treafury.
see BRORERS.                                             The Lower EXCHEJquER,
call'd alfo the Receipt of the
- .When the Matter is accomplfhed, that is, the Money Exchequer, is the Place
wherein the King's Revenue is
raid, they have for Brokage X Shillings per mOO Pound receiv'd and disburfed.
Utterlii~g;                                              The principal Officers
whereof are, the _dores Ylreaftre~r,
But    of              o   f gaining, and dealing in a   'ecretary of the
1-reafury, a Chanelh* of the Exche-
tocks,, hath fo prodigioufly increafed the Number of Per- quer, two Chamberlahins
of the Exchequer, an, Auditro
Toe. who a& as Brokers, that their Bufinefs, and their of the Receipts
of the Excheqer, four Y'ellerc, a Clerk
Pay, is very S~ertain.                               of the Plls, an Uoher
of the: Receipt, a i'aIgy Crtter,,
C      mxcHsAN s, are thofe who return Money beyond Sea, &c. See LORD
by Billaof   xch   e, &c.   aI'd antiently alfo Exceam- chequer, SECRETARY,
tiators, and Aince Remittes. See EXcAMBTArOR.          TALLY, C
EXCITE E     R, or finply, CHUER, a Chefs-Board;        ,k    osk  f the
EXCHEQyER, IS a Book under the
oaFram e dividino 64uares, oftwoColours, where- keeping        of the two
Chamberlains of thle    c      r;
onttopi                                                      ayat       
   l~    u fiaiz ti d Sav e h en  rnmnsi~l i n  rat.  ............ by Gerevai
o "i
The eWirwic                                 bo.ri ef~                II.
'and divie Vi1  ve
;  is rhe French         fch eqnier, whiche Sa    w of Ki
ages thefame~hi . $ee~aiss.        jal Chapters.  KigZer
H~I   Treens:     Sato~e:       i planted Ex-chequer-wife, Eerei is contain'd
a Defcription of the CXb  f
g, when dlfQte fo as to form divers S ie Antd as it then flood, its Officers,
their w  Privr-

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