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Chambers, Ephraim, 1680 (ca.)-1740 / Cyclopædia, or, An universal dictionary of arts and sciences : containing the definitions of the terms, and accounts of the things signify'd thereby, in the several arts, both liberal and mechanical, and the several sciences, human and divine : the figures, kinds, properties, productions, preparations, and uses, of things natural and artificial : the rise, progress, and state of things ecclesiastical, civil, military, and commercial : with the several systems, sects, opinions, &c : among philosophers, divines, mathematicians, physicians, antiquaries, criticks, &c : the whole intended as a course of antient and modern learning
(1728)

Equipage - exchange,   pp. 339-358 PDF (18.4 MB)


Page 339


to th of March, and the b
which is the Vernal, and  w
equal, that is, fometimes C
(from  the Caufes already j7
'.TION4) it comes to pafs,
s more from  the Vernal, C
in fron the Autumnal to 'e
F more Time in travelling oj
thern Signs.
is of M. Caffini, the Sun I
em Signs; and only 178 d. n
'e Difference of which is fi
advancing forwards in the S
every Day; he makes no ti
but the Moment he arrives v
e Day the Sun enters the A
ie Equinox, as being re-
is not it precifely fo, unlefs c'
lid-day. For if the rifing I
quinox, at fetting, he wil ti
have departed trom it, and nave got Northwards abour IQ':
Confequently, that Day will be fomewhat longer than X2 n
Hours, and the Night proportionably fhorter.         Il
The Time of the 3quzioxes, i. e. the Moment in which c
the Sun enters the Equator, is found by Obfervation, the n
Latitude of the Place of the Obferver being given.   I
Thus, in the Eqseinotlial Day, or near it, take the jugl
Meridian Altitude of the Sun; if this be equal to the t
Altitude of the Equator, or the Complement of the La- f
titude, the Sun is that very Moment in the Equator. If v
it be not equal, the Difference is the Sun's Declination.
The next Day obferve the Meridian Altitude as before, a
and  find  his Declination:  If the Declination be of a
different Kinds, viz. the one North, and the other South, I
the Equinox has happen'd in the Interval of Time between I
'em. Otherwife, the Sun has either not enter'd the Iqui- ,
vnotdial, or had pafs'd it at firft. From thefe two Obfer-
vations, a Trigonometrical Calculus gives the Time of the J
Equinox.
It is found by Obfervation, that the Equinoaial Points, 4
and all the other Points of the Ecliptic  are continually
moving backward, or in A4ntecedentia, that is, Wefiward. I
This rerrogade Motion of the Equinorfial Points, is that
famous and difficult Phenomenon, cali'd the Precefflon of
the Eqriinoxes. See PRECESSION of the Equinox.
EQUIPAGE, a Ship's Crew; or the Officers, Soldiers,
Sailors, and other Perfons, that man and manage the
fame; with the Arms, Provifions, Merchandizes, Uc. where-
with it is loaded. See SH IP, Sc.
The Sailors that are to work and manage a Ship, are
regulated by the Number of Lafis it may carry; each
Lafl making two Tun.
The Equipage of a Dutch Ship, from 40 to 5o Lafls,
is 7 Sailors and a Swabber; from  50 to 6o Lafis, the
Eqvip age confifds of 8 Men and a Swabber; and thus
increafes at the Rate of one Man for every Io Lafis * fo
that a Ship of Ioo Lafis has iz Men, Wc.
Engliy& and French Crews, are ufually fironger than
Datxc i but always about the fame Proportion.
EQUIPPE, in Heraldry, exprefTes a Knight equipp'd,
i. e. arm'd at all Points.
EQULPOLLENCE, in Logic, is when there is an Equi-
valence between two or more Terms, or Propofitions;
w. e. when they fignpfy one and the fame Thing, tho' they
exprefs it diferently. Such Propofitions, gc are faid to
aijpaent. bee EtQUIVALENT.
UITY, is Juilice, or Right, mitigated and temper'd
he Confideration of particular Circumfiances; or a
lion, or Moderation of the Severity of fome Law;
Temperament, which, without being unjufi, abates
igour of fome jufi Law. See LAW.
is is what the Greeks call idx"ia.  The utmofi Se-
of a good Law, is frequently contrary to Juflice;
ould always have Equity for its Rule and Guide.
ur jus, ftpe fumma injuria.
Foundation of Equity, is not that there is any
e in the Law; but that the Law was laid down
fally; when as all Circumfiances cou'd. not be con-
d, or taken in under one Law.
Fit, therefbre, is not ro mich a Correftion of a Law,
Amendment; nor yet fo1 roperJy an Amendment. of
,w it feilf, as of the Opinion arilng from its being
derifood, or  ill applied&
this it is diftinguilhed from a Difenration, which
away the Obligatiow of the Law in fome particular
whereas a Corredio dbes not take away any Ting
eb   ation, but only fiews in what Senfi ist 1
e taken, leW there Ihould be imagia'4 any       -on,
'here there is none.
For an Infance, fuppofe it an exprefs Law, that tV
'ity Aeirg now beftt with an Enemy, the Gates be a4
'ut; and fuppofe it fall out, that the Enemy is then in
urfuit after fome of the Citizens by whom it is defended;
o that it would be- highly prejudicial thereto, not to open
em the Gates:   Equity here decreesrthe Gates to be
pen'd, contrary to the exprefs Word of the Law.
2thom. Aquin. propofes another Inflance; Suppofe it
Law, that whoever reifies to reflore what had been com-
litted in Trufi to him, 1hall pay a grievous Mul&t; and
ippofe fome Perfon refufe to reflore 'a Sword left with
him, to a Mad-man. This Cafe is comprehended in the
enfe and Intendment of the Law, tho' not in the Words
tereof. And the Legiflator himfelf, if he were prefent,
would except it.' Eqzuity, therefore, muf+ here flep in, to
Drrea or rupply the Defeds of the Judge, and acquit the
Man of the Mulfa.
In this View, Equity is of' two Kinds, and thofe of
contrary Eflhds: The one abridges, and takes from  the
Letter of the Law i and the other enlarges, and adds
thereto.
The firfi is defined, the Correaion of a Law, made ge-
nerally in that Part wherein it fails: As, fuppofe an
nade, That whofoever does fuch a Thing, lhall be a Felon*
or fuffer Death; yet if a Madman, or an Infant, who hath
no Difcretion, do the fame, he fhall neither be a Felon, nor
fuffer Death.
The other is defined an Extenfion of the Words of the Law,
to Cafes unexprefs'd, which yet have the fame Reafon;
b that, when one Thing is enaded, all other Things,
which are of the like Degree, are fo too.
Thus in the Statute which ordains, That in Aclion of Debt
igainfl Executors, he that doth appear by Diflrefs Shall
infwer; doth extend, by Equity, to Adminiftrators; for
juch of them as Jhall appear firfi by Difrrefs, Sfiall anfwer
by the Equity of the faid Ad't; knia funt ii; equali
'enere.
EQu LrY is alfo ufed for the Virtue of Jullice.  See
JUSTICE.
EuvITY, in our Laws, Cc. is frequently ufed for the
Court of Chancery, where Controverfics are luppofed to be
determined, according to the exadl Rules of Equity and
Confcience, by mitigating the Rigour of the Common Law.
See CHANCERY.
jAquitas fequitur Legem, is an old Maxim in Law,
but from  the great Increafe of Suits in (Chancery, forne
have thought fit to give it this Confiruaion, That in all
Caufes after a Man has been' at Law, he mufr go into
Equty.
EQUIVALENT, is underflood of fomething that is
equal in Value, Force, or Efefd to another. See EQusA-
L ITY.
Equivalence is of various Kinds, in Protofitionss iti
Berms, and in T7bines.
Equivalent Y-erms are, where feveral Words that differ
in Sound, have yet but one and-the fame Signification; as
Every B ody wras there, and no Body was abfent; Ni hi i
non and onme.
Equivalence in Things, is either moral, phyfical, or
flatical. Moral, as when we fay, that the commanding
or advifing a Murther, is a Guilt ]ijnivalent to that ot
the Murtherer; 'Phyfical, as when a Man, who has the
Strength of two Men, is faid to be Equivalent to two:
And Statical, whereby a lefs Weight becomes of equal
Force with a greater, by having its Dillance, or the like,
increas'd.'
EQUIVOCAL, EoSIvOQoE, is applied to an Expref.
lion that is dubious and ambiguous; or that may have
feveral Senrfs, one true, and another falfe. See EVUvo-
CATION.
EqUIVOCAL, .iEquIvocuM, EQvIVOQE, in Logic, by
the Greeks call'd Homonymum, is any Word which upder
one Senfe exhibits feveral Idea's, or is adapted to different
Conceptions.
As the Word Emperor, which is both the Name of a
Dignity, the proper Name of a Perfon, and the Name of
a Plant. So alfo the Larin Gallus, which fBands india-
rently for a Cock, and a Frenchman.
In which Cafe, one Word denotes divers ConceptiOnS2 one
Word divers Things. Whence that common Definition of
Equtival in the School, quorum    vomen ej/ comMullep
Ratichtvero iEfeniefjecvnduigllued Nomen diverfa.
The Philofophers have diflinguifhed Eqwvocah, i.uto
AwiqXe and Pafi ve i or into Equivoca, Equ 1v a7il; an4^g
-  eivoca Eqfuivocanatia, ^or thofe that dan
vgiifyThlhgs, are Words common to feve     A     in a
very different Signification, i. e. to fvera  i  lih
a fittil'a Bff~pnc corrcfl ondent, to iLpm-
p         f  ..  .  .  i   .     [~~~~~~~ion.
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