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Chambers, Ephraim, 1680 (ca.)-1740 / Cyclopædia, or, An universal dictionary of arts and sciences : containing the definitions of the terms, and accounts of the things signify'd thereby, in the several arts, both liberal and mechanical, and the several sciences, human and divine : the figures, kinds, properties, productions, preparations, and uses, of things natural and artificial : the rise, progress, and state of things ecclesiastical, civil, military, and commercial : with the several systems, sects, opinions, &c : among philosophers, divines, mathematicians, physicians, antiquaries, criticks, &c : the whole intended as a course of antient and modern learning

Embryothlastes - eon,   pp. 299-318 PDF (18.5 MB)

Page 299

t  29- ,1
. W 2I
on the right Side for a Liver.
by Naturalifis, to exprefs the
or rather the Germ, or firli
Seed: By Reafon the whole
be contain/d therein.  Jufg as
I contained in the Cicatricula,
from IluBrvaP Fietns, and aA ,
an Instrument to crufh the
' Child; fo as to make it eafier
ifor the Embryu/cus, to draw
EMBRYOTOMY, in Chirurgery, the Operation of cut-
ting off the Funiculus Umjbilicalis, or Navel String, of a
Child juft born, and tying it up. See UMBILICUS.
The Word is form'd of the Greek, 1tiovc   and -npra,
I cut.
the Operation of extrading the Child out of the Mother's
What the Greeks call Embryo/kia, the Latins call
C~efarean Seaion. See CxSAREUS.
This latter Name, M. D ionis obferves, has taken Place,
and prevail'd over the former; as being more eafy of
TheWord is form'd of the Greek, Iq3guov, Child, and
cAtxef, to draw.
EMENDALS, an old Term fill ufed in theAccounts
of the inner Temple : Where, fo much in -Emendals at
the Foot of an Account, fignifies fo much in the Bank,
or Stock of the Houfe, for Reparation of Lores, and
other Occafions.
EMENDATIO Panis U7 Cerevif/i, the Affize of Bread
and Beer; or the Power of fupervifing and correcting the
Weights and Meafures belonging to them. See AssIzE.
EMERALD, a pretious Stone, very green and tranfpa-
rent 3 and as to Hardneir, the next after the Ruby. See
PRET IOUs Stone.
Pliny reckons up twelve Kinds of Emeralds; and de-
nominates each from the Provinces, or Kingdoms, where
he fuppofed them to be found i     as Scythian, Baarian,
Egyptian, Permian, &c.
But the modern Naturalifts, and Jewellers, 'only know of
two Kinds, viz. Oriental and Peruvian. And if we
may credit 9avernier, in his Treatife of Colour'd Stones
found in the Indies, inferted in the fecond Volume of his
Voyages, thefe two Should yet be reduced to one, viz.
the Peruvian.
In E*idf>, he maintains that there is not, nor ever was,
any 'Mine of Emeralds in the Eajf-Indies; and that all
that are there found, were brought from Peru by the Way
of the South Sea ; which was a Method of Commerce,
carried on by the Peruvians before the Difcovery of
dAmerica by the Spaniards.   But as the Point of fuch
Commerce is not fufficiently proved, we muff keep to the
antient Divifion.
The Oriental Emerald is harder, more brilliant, and
tranfparent than the Peruvian; which has generally Clouds
found in it, and fparkles lefs. Befide that, there are fuch
Quantities brought from Peru, by the Way of Carthagena,
that they are much. funk in Value and Reputation. They
talk likewife of Emeralds found in Cyprus, and even in
our own Ifland; but they are very inconfiderable i if, indeed,
there be any true ones at all.
Some Authors hold Emeralds to be taken out of Iron
Mines:   And Pomet affures us, he had one to which the
Iron Ore was fill flicking. To which, all we have to
fay, is, that it could not be a Peruvian, by Reafon there
is no Iron Mine in the Country.
The Emerald is flppofed to grow more and more per-
fe* in the Mine like the Ruby; and to arrive at its
Greennefs by flow' Degrees, as the Fruit comes to Maturity
by Degrees. 'Tis a common Opinion, that the Emeral
grows in the Jafper; and 'tis certain there are fome
Is id perfectly green, thiat many have taken them for
alds. See JASPER.
t the proper Matrix, or Marcafite of this Stone is the
e, which is held among the coarfer pretious Stones;
hard, tranfparent, half opake, and ufvally intermix'd
yellow, green, white, blue, tc.
Antients made Amulets of Emeralds againfl all
s of Sorcery; and fuppofed them effedual againil a
and different Difeafes. At prefent- that we have
Experience, or lefs Credulity, they are valued for
Beauty, not their Virtue; tho' there are fill fome
ppofe, that when reduced into an impalpable Pow-
x4 mix'd  with Rofe WVater, they may be of fonie
We read in Authors of feveral Emralds of incredible
Magnitude: Roderigo de io/eda tells us, that when the
Sarazens took that Town, King 1',srik had for his Share
of the Plunder, a Table 365 Foot long, and all of a-piece,
which he maintains to be an Emerald. After this, the
Reader will not wonder at that feen by              in01hrags  in
a Temple in ]uypt, four Cubits long, and three broad;
nor even at an Obelisk of Emerald 40 Foot hbl.h,
The Word is form'd from   the French EfmerZlde, and
that from the Latin Sraragdus, which fignifies the fatne
Thing. Others derive it from the Italian Smcra/do, or
the Arabic Zomorrad.
In the Dilonnaiare de Commerce, we have a very cu-
rious and accurate Eflimate of the Values of the different
Kinds of Peruvian Emeralds; which the Reader I will
not be difpleafed to find tranfcribed hither.
Thofe of the firfl, and coarfeff, Sort, called Plafmes,
for grinding, are worth 27 Shillings Sterling the Marc, or
8 Ounces.  The DLemi-Arorillons, 8 Lib. Stcrl. per Marc.
Good Morillons, which are only little Pieces, but of fine
Colour, from  I3 L. to I L. per Marc.  Emeralds larger
than Morillons, and call'd of the third Colour, or Sort,
are valued at from 5ol . to 6o L. the Marc.  Emeralds,
call'd of the fecond Sort, which are in larger and finer
Pieces than the preceding, are worth from 65 L. to 75 L.
per Marc. Lafily, thofe of' the firfi Colour, otherwise call'd
Negyres Cartes, are worth from  Ito Lib. to IIs Lib.
EMERALDS ready cut, or po/led, and not cut, being of
good Stone, and a fine Colour, are worth,
Lib. Sh.
Thofe weighing One Cara&,or 4 Grain    o  I
Thofe of Two Carais-           -   --     7
Thofe of Three Carads -        -   -   -  -2a
Thofsg of Four Carats        -       - 3  10
Thofe of Five Carads         -       - 4  10
Thofe of Six Carads    -- -         -- 7  10
Thofe of Seven Caradfs -     -  -   -  - I 5  o
Thofe of Eight Caracds   --     -  -  -- 19  o
Thofe of Nine Carads -       -  -   -  - 23  0
Thofe of Ten Caradts --      -  -  -  - 33  0
EMERALD, or EMERAUD, in Heraldry, is ufed in
Lieu of Vert, or Green, in Blazoning the Arms of Dukes,
Earls, Zc. See BLAZONING.
EMERGENT Year, in Chronology, is the Epocha, or
Date, whence we begin to account our Time. See EPOCHA.
Thus, our Emergent Tear is Sometimes the Year of the
Creation: That of the Jews, is from the Deluge, or the
Exodus, &c. The Emergent Bear of the Greeks, was the
Ellablifhment, or at leaff the Refloration of the Olympic
Games by Ipthitus.   The Romans accounted their Years
from the Building of the City AB U. C. That is, AB
EMERSION, in Phyficks, the rifing of any Solid above
the Surface of a Fluid fpecifically lighter than it felf, into
which it had been violently immerged or thruff.
'Tis one of the known Laws of Hydroflaticks, that a
lighter Solid being forced down into a heavier Fluid, im-
mediately endeavours to emerge 3 and that with a Force,
or Moment, equal to the Excefs of Weight of a Quantity
of the Fluid, above that of an equal Bulk of the Solid.
Thus, if a Solid be immerged in a Fluid of double its
fpecific Gravity; it will emerge again, till half its Bulk,
or Body, be above the Surface of the Fluid. See FLUID.
EMERSION, in Affronomy, is when the Sun, Moon, or
other Planet, begins to re-appear, after havi6g been eclip-
fed, or hid by the Interpofition of the Moon, Earth, or
other Body. See ECLIPSE.
The Difference of Longitudes is found by observing the
Immerfions and Emerfions of the firfl of Yupiter's Satel-
lites. See SATELLITES.
The Immerfions are obferved from the Time of 7upiter's
being in Conjunaion with the Sun, to his Oppofition;
and the Emerfions, from the Oppofition to the Conjunction.
Which two Intervals are ufually fix Months a-piece; and
divide the Year between them.
But when Zupiter is in Conjunlion with the Sun, and
fifteen Days  ore and afterwards; there is nothing to be
obferved: That Planet, with' his Satellites, being then loft
in the Light of the Sun. See JUPITER.
EMERSION, is alfo ufed' when a Star, before hid by the
Sun, as being too near him, begins to re-appear, and ta
get out of his Rays. See MEi CURY.
Scples, or Minutes of EMiRSION, are an Archof the
Moon's Orbit, as T    Q (l'b. ftronom- Fig 46.) whc  h
Moon's Centre paffes over, from the Time lhe h ftos t
Emerge out of the Shadow of the Earth to the    of te
EClipfr.                                      EMERY;
A k

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