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Chambers, Ephraim, 1680 (ca.)-1740 / Cyclopædia, or, An universal dictionary of arts and sciences : containing the definitions of the terms, and accounts of the things signify'd thereby, in the several arts, both liberal and mechanical, and the several sciences, human and divine : the figures, kinds, properties, productions, preparations, and uses, of things natural and artificial : the rise, progress, and state of things ecclesiastical, civil, military, and commercial : with the several systems, sects, opinions, &c : among philosophers, divines, mathematicians, physicians, antiquaries, criticks, &c : the whole intended as a course of antient and modern learning

Education - embryo,   pp. 279-298 PDF (18.9 MB)

Page 279

Author; ufually, of an antient Author * For Editor is
neither properly applied to a working Printer, nor to an
Author who prints his own Works.
Er 5, was a mighty Editor of antient Writings. The
vain Dfloors, Scaliger, SPetaviuw, Fa. Sirmond, Bifliop
Wton, Mr. Hearn, &c. are learned Editors.
EDUCATION, the Art of bringing up, forming, and
inftruding Children.
The Follies of a too delicate Education, are well ex-
prefs'd in that Devife of an Ape, which by over careffing
and hugging its young ones, ftrangles them; with the Motto,
Compleflendo necat.
Ofiavivs Ferrarius, has a very good Latin Treatife on
the Subjeft of Education, entitled Chiron i the Name of
the Centaur who was Achilles's Tutor.
Mr. Lock's excellent Treatife of Education, is known to
every Body. kuintillian employs the fecond Chapter of
his flrfi Book, in enquiring whether a Domeftic, or a
College Education, be preferable, i. e. whether it be better
to bring up ones Children at Home, or to fend them to
the Colleges, and public Schools.  After urging all that
can be faid on either Side, he concludes for a College, or
School Education.
EDULCORATION, in Pharmacy, is the dulcifying,
or fweetening of any Remedy, by Means of Sugar, or
EDULCORATION, in Chymifiry, is the fweetenin2g, or
purging any Thing of its Salts, Wc. by repeated Lotions,
or  aings in cold Water: E. gr. the freeing of Precipi-
tates of Mercury, Metals, Uc. of the lharp Salts by
Means whereof they had been diffolved X or which had
been mingled with them, to eifeh    a Dilfolution.  See
EFFARE, or EFFRAYE, in Heraldry, a Term ap-
plied to a Beaff, when rearing on its hind Legs, as if it
were affrighted.
EFFECT, the Refult, or Confequence, of the Applica-
tion of a Caufe, or Agent, on fome Subjed. See CAUSE.
'Tis one of the great Axioms of Philofophy, that Effeauvs
Jleni, whole or adequate Effefs, are always proportionable
to the Powers of their Caufes.
The Term is alfo of fomewhat further Import in the Arts:
As when we fay, in Painting and Architedure, that fuch
a Contraft, or fiuch a Drapery, or fuch an Attitude, have
a fine, or an ill Effea, i. e. are beautiful, or noble, Wc.
Too many Breaks, and little Enrichments in a Building,
have a pitiful Effed, i. e. give it a mean Afpect.
In the Manage, Effet7 is applied to the Motions of the
Hand, which dired the Horfe.
They diflinguifh four Effefis of the Iand, viz. in ufing
the Bridle to put a Horfe forwards, draw him back-
wards. and ihifting it out of the ripht Hand into the
or vice verfa.
FFECTs, in Commerce, -'c. are the Goods poaefs'd
any Perfon, whether moveable or immoveable: parti-
rly thofe which Merchants and Dealers, acquire by
de. The Effets of Merchants are ufually diflinguifhed
three Clafles, good, bad and doubtful. By an Ordon-
:e of the French Court in I673, every Merchant is
zed to take an Inventory, or Review, every Year, of all
Efe~ts of all Kinds.
FFECTIONS, in Geometry, the Geometrical Conflru-
ns of Propofitions. See CONsTRuCTION.
1he Term is alfo ufed in Reference to Problems and
ftices; which when they are deducible from, or founded
n, fome general Propofitions, are called the Geometrical
Wtaions thereto belonging.
EFFERVESCENCE, is popularly ufed for a light
yellition, or a firong inteftine Motion, produced in a
uor, by the firfi Affion of Heat, without any notable
aration of its Parts. See EBULLITION.
uch a Liquor muff be heated to a flight Effervefcence.
,FFERVPSCENCE, in Phyficks, Chymifiry, &c. is not
lied to any Ebullitions, or Motions produced by Fire;
only to thofe refulting from the Mixture of Bodies of
Ierent Natures, which by their adfing on one another,
tfion a Heat, or at leaft an Agitation of Parts, refem-
g the Ebullition, or boiling produced by Fire.
Acids mix'd with Alkalies, e. gr. Oil of Tartar, and
rit of Vitriol, produce an Effervefcence, &c.
Chauvin defines Lffervefcence more fcientifically, to be a
ent Expulfion of the Air, out of the Pores of the Par-
m. of one Body, by the Intrufion of the Particles of
ther Body mix'd therewith, into thofe Pores before pof-
'd by Air.
n Order for Effervefcence to take Place, the Particles
the latter Body mufl be fuppofed conformable, both in
k and Figure, to the Pores of the other; fo as they
y enter, and fill the fame, like Wedges: And befide, a
ingDegree of Attradion between the-Particles of the
Bodies, ftronger than the Attradion, or Force of
Cohefion, between the Particles of either of the Bodies alone.
Hence it fhould feem, that Effervefcence only differs
from Fermentation, in the begree of Explofion; which in
Effervefcences, by Reafon of the greater Purity and Free-
dom of the Acid and Alkali, is greater than in Fermen-
tations. See FERMENTATION.
Of Effervefcences, fome are hot, and others cold. Of
the firft Kind, are thofe produced by the Mixture of Oil
of Tartar per deliquium, with Spirit of Vitriol ; Quick-
lime with cold Water; all acid Spirits, with alcaline, or
earthy Bodies ; Aqua forris, Spirit of Vitriol, Spirit of
Nitre, A4qua Regia, &c. with all Metallic Bodies, Marca-
fites and Minerals; Coral, with Lemon, or Orange Juice;
Marble with Spirit of Salt i Hartflhorn, Chal , Boars
Tooth, Crabs Eyes, Mother of Pearl, and all Shells WitQi
Acids. In all which, the Effervefcences are attended with
a pretty intenfe Heat. Oil of Vitriol, and Oil of Turpentine,
particularly, mix'd together, produce fuch a vehement Heat,
that unlefs they be mix'd Drop by Drop, they are apt to
burfi forth into Flame, and break the Vial.
On' the contrary, Silver-fillings being diffolved in Spirit
of Nitre, produce a cold Effervefcence, which, inflead of
Heating, cools the Glafs, fo as to render it painful to
the Senfe of feeling.
This different Effedt is afcribed to this, that in the
former Cafe, the mix'd Bodies, one or both of them,
abound with Sulphur; but not in the latter. Not but fome
attribute the Heat, ufual in Effervefcences, to the vehement
Fridfion, and Collifion of the Particles againfl each other.
Powder'd Coral, mix'd with diflill'd Vinegar, produces
a cold Efferveficence, which the fame Philofophers account
for hence, that the Pores of the Coral being very great, it
may be eafily diffolved in the acid Spirit, without any great
Fridion, or Collifion of the Parts, fuch as would be ne-
ceffary to generate any confiderate Heat.
An Effervef/cnce may alfo be produced by the Mixture
of two cold Liquors. See DISSOLUTION.
thefe I 5 0 Years there have been very great Difputes on the
the Subjedt of F6jicacious Grace. Grace is ufually divided
into fufficient and Efficaciouss; tho' the 7anfienifls hold,
that there is no Grace fufficient, but what is Efficacious,
i. e. but what effectually determines the Will to afd. See
Efficacious Grace, is defined to be that which enlightens
the Mind, and touches the Heart, in fuch Manner, as al-
ways to produce its Effed, however it be oppofed, or
refifled by the Will. See GRACE.
Some Divines maintain that Efficacious Grace is Efica-
cious of it felf. Efficacious Grace of it fe/f, if there be
any fuch Thing, is that which produces its Effea merely
of it felf, and not in Vertue of any Confent of the Will.
Calvin, is the firfi that ever ufed the Term Gratia Efficax
per fe, Grace Efficaciovs of it felf.
A late Divine holds the Efficacy of Grace in it felf to
confifi in this, that Eficaciovs Grace is always joyn'd with
a Moral Neceffity of doing the Thing it inclines to; and
fufficient Grace, joyn'd with a moral Impotence of doing
The Areniavn and Popijh \W7ay of conceiving the Ne-
ceflity of Efficacious Grace, is to hold that this Grace is
never wanting, at leaff to the Righteous, except thro' their
own Default ; that they always fland in Need of other
inner Graces, truly and properly fuflicient, in Order to draw
down this Efficacious Grace i 'and that they do infallibly
draw it down, when it is not rejeded, tho' they often
remain without Effed, thro' a Refiftance, inflead    of a
Confent thereto.
Fa. Malebranchb maintains, that the mutual Commerce
between Soul and Body, i. e. Life, has no other Vinculum,
or Principle, but the EIficacy of God's Decrees: That
fecond Caufes have no proper Efficacy,    C   See SECOND
EFFICIENT, in Philofophy. An EfFcient Caffe is that
which produces an Effea. See CAUSE and EFFECT.
Philofophers ufually difiinguiih four Kinds of Caufes in
Nature: The Eficient, a final, a formal, and a material.
See each under its proper Article.
The School Philofophers are exceedingly divided as to
the Nature and Efrence of an Efficient calore.
Arifiotle defines an Ifficiwe to be, id vide, that from
which: Or, the fir/t Principle of change and Refi, I e.
of Produfion and Confervation: The Efficient, called id
rindj that from which; as the End or final caufe, is
that proper, quod, for which; the Exemplar, ad quod
that to which ; the Matter, ex q!o0, that of which ; and
the Form, per quo], that by which. And it is call'd the
fira Principle, not in Refped of Priority of Time, for
the End exerts its Caufality before the EJVcient, but of
t     j

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