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Chambers, Ephraim, 1680 (ca.)-1740 / Cyclopædia, or, An universal dictionary of arts and sciences : containing the definitions of the terms, and accounts of the things signify'd thereby, in the several arts, both liberal and mechanical, and the several sciences, human and divine : the figures, kinds, properties, productions, preparations, and uses, of things natural and artificial : the rise, progress, and state of things ecclesiastical, civil, military, and commercial : with the several systems, sects, opinions, &c : among philosophers, divines, mathematicians, physicians, antiquaries, criticks, &c : the whole intended as a course of antient and modern learning
(1728)

Crowned - czar,   pp. 351-368 PDF (16.7 MB)


Page 351


(-       h)
r'd Crowns, thofe with Pearls, or Leaves
y, Lee. fuch as were antiently almofi
Ofe of Sovereign Princes: Tho they were
iouries, till about zoo Years ago.
tnetry, a Plane included between two
ic Perimeters, of unequal Circles ; ge-
ion of fome Part of a Right Line round
ing Part not being contiguous to the
is had, by multiplying its Breadth by
tr ; for a Series of Terms in Arirhme-
g n x ii+ @; that is, the Sum of the
y'd by half the Number of Terms, the
ifl be S±.+_i wherefore, that multi-
th or Sum of all, the two Terms will
Court or Office fo called, becaufe the
nediately concern'd in what is therein
OWN.
Officers under the Lord Chief Juflice
nmoning a Parliament; yet, many of
in other Matters, during the fitting of
in Cafes of Error, &c. but more efpe-
Peers; wherein the Clerk of the Crowton
out of Parliament, all Indic6ments in
tions, Recognizances; and a multitude
Ins thro' his Hands, as the writing of all
ions, and other Proceedings upon Re-
cutive Part is left to his Secondary or
the finefi fort of Window-Glafs. See
Architeaure, a Polf which in fome
right in the middle, between two prin-
POST.
of a Watch, is the upper Part next the
ice, that drives it by its Motion. See WATCH.
owN-WORx, or CROWNING, in Fortification, Outworks
t in the Campagne, to keep off the Enemy, to gain
Hill, or advantageous  oll, and to cover the other
w of the Place. See OUTWORK.
cnfifls of two Demi-Baflions at the Extremes, and an
Baflionlin the middle, with Courtines.
LOWNED Horn-wvork, is a Horn-work with a Crown-
%before it. See HORN-WORK.
OWNING, is underflood, in the general, of any
Athat tirnminates, or finilhes a Decoration of Architec-
* Thus, a Cornice, a Pediment, Acroteria, &c. are
Crowuivngs. See ACROTER, eC.
us, alfo, the Abacus is faid to crown the Capital; and
wv Member or Mouldinp is faid to he irown'd_ when
; and a Niche is crown'd, when it is co-
1. See MOULDING, NICHE, SC.
or Groupade, in the. Manage, a Leap,
rvet, wherein thle ore and hind Part of a
al heilht'; his Legs being trufs'd under
hirerching ern out, or lhewing his Shoes.
CRU1'PER, the hind Part of a Horfe;
sween the Place of the Saddle, and the
m'd from'the German Grub, thick, fat:
it from the Italian Groppa, Buttock.
,i/on, in Chirurgery, an Incifion, or Cut
irts, in form of a Crofs.
little Veffel, ordinarily of Earth, fome-
t any Han'dle, us'd bv Chymiffs,' Coin-
lafiers, and other ArtiAcers; tm melt and
ir, or other Metals whereon they work.
INATION, &C.
s are m   oflaz'd   Earth', with Stone
and Pifted  '1 ey are of various Sizes,
e frime  Form, which' refembles 'that of
'r Pyrarid.
,efly us'd in Coinage, as being the only
wll melt without Irrirating. Iron Cruci-
f little Pails without Handles, made of
id beaten: In thefe they melt Silver,
hen Crucibles that hold from, too to 3 or
2ofe ordinarily us'd are but of ioo. The
fome holding Iz or 50 Marks: Thefe
the Furnaces when the Plates are to be
is laden out with an Iron Ladle. 'Tis a
as much Metal in the Crucible as it will
red by Gol1fniths and Founders are like
:oinage: Thofe of Chymifti, tec. areaof
rnt thef (1,1 0 titv#- nnA l-11v af th.e htetal
t~ ~~~~-, inm  ' 4XgL s-_ <>_ty ..., --.,,,
Ö  .,  --   -.-   ~   *t   J'~,L
C R U
The Woifd comes from the Hebrew Keres, te]s, fiCa
Du Camge derives it from Crufelinum; which, in the loweit
Latin fignifies a little drinking Vefe].
CRUCIFIX, a Crofs, whereon the Body of Jefus Chrift
is fiflen'd in Effigy;y much us'd by the Romanifts in their
Churches, and other Places, to recognize the Paflion of jefus
ChiiPr, and to ferve them to direa their Prayers to. See
CROSS.
There ate fome Chapters wherein Jefus Chrifi is the firfl
Canon, and the Fruits of the Prebend go to the Subfilence
of the Crucifix.
CRUCIFIXION, an antlent Form of Execution; by
faftening the Criminal to an ereaed Crofs. See CROSS.
CRUDE, fomerthing that has not pafs'd the Fire, or has
not had the degree of Coition, i. e. of Heat, requifite to
prepare it for eating, or fome other Purpofe. See COCTION.
Crude or Raw Silk, is that which has not been put in
boiling Water, to unwind it from off the Cod; nor boil'd in
Water and Soap, to fit it for dying. See SiLK.
In Chymifiry, they call Crude antimony that which comes
immediately from the Mines, without any Preparation. See
ANTIMONY.
In Medicine, Crude Humours are thofe which want of that
Preparation and Elaboration which they ordinarily receive
from Digeflion. See CRUDITY.
The Retainers to the Dodrine of Trituration, hold that
the Crudity of the Humours only confifds in this that they
are not broke and comminuted fo much as they fhould be
by the ordinary A&ion of the Stomach. See TRITIURATION.
CRUDITY, in Medicine, the State of a Difeate, where-
in the morbifick Matter is of fuch Bulk, Figure, Cohefion,
Mobility, or InaaIivity, as denominates it crude, i. e. as
creates or increafes the Difeafe. See DISEASE.
A Crudity is difcover'd, IfP, from the Difeafe's continuing
its degree of Strength, or increafing. zd, From a continual In-
creafe of Symptoms. 3d, From a dilorderly Exerciie ofthe
Fundions. 4th, But chiefly from a Fault in the Quantity
or Quality of the Humours; both thofe Hill circuiating,
and thofe fecteted, and evacuated : as of Sweat, Tears,
Mucus of the Nofe, Saliva, Sputum, the Bile, Urine, Ichor,
Pus, Blood, Menfes, Loches, Milk, Aphthm, &5c.
That State of the Difeafe, wherein the crude Matter is
changed, and render'd lefs peccant, and laudable, is call'd
Digeflion, Concodcion, or Maturation. See DIGESTION,
CONCOCTION, EC.
CRUISE, from the German Kruis, a-crofs, fignified to
crofs to and fro, to fail up an down for guard of the Seas, &c.
CRUOR, a Term ufed by Anatomifis for the red Glo-
bulestof the Blood; in contradiltindion to the limpid or
ferous Part. See BLOOD.
Some Authors, Dr. Keill and Dr. Woodward for intlance,
fuppofe thefe Globules replete with an elaftick Aura, or Air;
find on this Principle account for fome of the Phxnomena of
the Animal Oeconomy; particularly Mufcular Motion, Wic.
But Dr. J7urin has overturn'd that Suppofition. See Mus-
CiLAR Motion.       -
. lbanielmont ufes the Word Cruor for the Blood in the
Veins ; in contradifinaion to the Blood in the Arteries,
which he callsfanguis. See VEIN, and ARTERY.
CRURA C!itoridis, in Anatomy. Between the Corpora
Nervofa of the Clitoris, runs a Septum, or membranous
Partition, from the Glans to its Divarication at the Os Pubis;
dividing the Clitoris into two Parts, call'd the Crurz of the
Clitoris.
Thefe are three times as long as the ordinary Trunk of
-the Clitoris it felf. See CLITORIS.
CRURA of the Medulla Oblougata, are two of the four
Roots whence the Medulla Oblongata fprings, in the Brain.
The Crura are the larger Roots; the two fmaller are
call'd Pedunculi. See MEDULLA Oblongata.
CRURAL, in Anatomy, an Epithet given to the large
Artery and Vein of the Thigh. See THIGH.
The Crrural Artery ´arifes from the Iliac Artery ; or rather,
'tis the Iliac it felf, under another Name; being call'd Cru-
ral, froni the Place of its Entrance into the Thigh. See
ILI AC.
It conveys Bo6d thro' all the Part, by means of a great
Number of Branches dilleminated thro' its Subftance.
The Crural Iteinz is form'd of fix other Veins, vis. the
great and little Sciatica, the Mufcula, the Poplitea, the Su-
ral, and the Saphena. See SCIATICA, CC.
CRURiEUS, in Anatomy, a Mufcle arifing from the
fore Part of the Thigh-Bone, between the leffer and greater
Trochanter, and lying clofe upon the Bone, joins its Tendon
with three others, which altogether make one broad Ten-
don, that paffes over the Pasella, and is inferred into the
little Tuberofity on the upper and fore Part of the T1hta.
'Tis call'd Crureus, as being faflen'd in the Thigh-Bone
Ain the fame manner as the .'Brachieus to the Arm.  Its ufe
is to extend the Leg.
CRUS,
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