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Chambers, Ephraim, 1680 (ca.)-1740 / Cyclopædia, or, An universal dictionary of arts and sciences : containing the definitions of the terms, and accounts of the things signify'd thereby, in the several arts, both liberal and mechanical, and the several sciences, human and divine : the figures, kinds, properties, productions, preparations, and uses, of things natural and artificial : the rise, progress, and state of things ecclesiastical, civil, military, and commercial : with the several systems, sects, opinions, &c : among philosophers, divines, mathematicians, physicians, antiquaries, criticks, &c : the whole intended as a course of antient and modern learning

Corporation - crown,   pp. 331-350 PDF (19.1 MB)

Page 331

Pope Eifebius who firfl enjoin'd the Ufe
iers fay S. Silve/ler. It was the Cufloni
with fome Solemnity, to Fires, and to
Flames, in order to extinguifh 'em.
fays, the Pope made Louis XI. a Prd-
e wherein my Lord S. Peter fung Mafs.
N, a Body Politick, or Incorporate; fo
-veral Members thereof are form'd into
qualify'd to take, purchafe, grant, have
and be fued, ec. in their joint Capacity.
ay be efiablifh'd three ways, viz. by Pre-
s Patent, and by AA of Parliament.
either Eccle,'zaflical, or Lay.
either Regular, as Abbies, Priories,
chapters  c. or Secular, as Blfhopricks, Deanaries, Arch-
decories, Parfonages, Cc. Univerfities, Colleges, Hurpi-
tals. See ABBY, PRIORY, CHAPTER, Fc. fee alfo Hospi-
as thofe of Cities, Towns, Mayoralties, Bailliwicks,
cooIpanics or Communities of Commerce, Lec. See COM-
?Aty) LeC.
Again, a Corporation is either fole, or an aggregate of ma-
which laff is what the Civilians call a College. See
1,rEGE; fee alfo COMMUNITY.
CORPOREITY, a School Term. Subflance is ufually
divided into Corporeal and Spiritual: Now Corporeity is
Qe Quality of that which is Corporeal, or has Body; or
,hat which conflitutes or denominates it fuch. See SUB-
The Corporeity of God was the capital Error of the A4n-
tbr4omorphites. Some Authors reproach rertullian with
dwstting a Corporeity in the Deity; but 'tis manifefi, by
d he means no more than Subftancc.
The Mabometans reproach the Samaritans at this, Day,
vith a Belief of the Corporeity of God. Many of the An-
rients believ'd the Corporetty of Angels.
CORPORIFICATION, or Corporation, in Chymifiry,
Operation of recovering Spirits into the fame Body, or
at lead into a Body nearly the fame, with that which they
d before their Spiritualization. See SPIRiT.
CARPS de Garde, a Poff in an Army, fometimes under
Covrt, fometimes in the open Air, to receive a Body of Sol-
,   who are reliev'd from time to time, and who are to
wat in their Turns, for the Security of a Quarter, a
p, Station, bec.
The Word is alfo ufed for the Men who watch therein.
TIjsvfual to have, betide the great, a little Corps de Garde,
at a good difiance before the Lines; to be the more readily
Attertis'd of the Approach of the Enemy.
cORPS, in Architedlure, is a Term borrow'd fiom the
nch, fignifying any Part that projeds or advances beyond
theNaked of Wail; and which ferves as a Ground for
fine Decoration. See PROJECTURE.
CORPS de sBataille, is the main Body of an Army, drawn
up Or Battle.
CORPUS, and CORPORA, B ody, Bodies, in Anatomy,
Tirms apply'd to feveral Parts in the Animal Struiffure;
as the Corpus Callofum, Corpora Striata, and Olivaria of
the Brain; the Corpora Cavernofa and Nervofa of the Penis;
Pus Glandulofum, Corpus Reticulare, &c. See CALLO-
uini Clorpus, OLIVARIA Corpora, &c.
CORPus is alfo ufed in Matters of Learning, for feveral
Wrs of the fame Nature, colleaed, join'd, and bound to-
igether. Thus, Gratian made a Colleffion of the Canons
Xthe Church, called Corpus Canonum. See CANON.
The Corpus of the Civil Law is compos'd of the Digefi,
oe, and Inflitutes. See CIVIL Law i fee alfo CODE, and
AWe have alfo a Corpus of the Greek Poets; and another
C the Latin Poets. See BODY.
CORPUS Callcfum, is the Upper-part, or covering of the
two lateral Ventricles of the Brain, appearing immediately
Seder the Procefs of the Dl7ura Mater, below the Depth of
all the Circumvolutions; being form'd by the Union of the
Medullary Fibres of each fide. See BRAIN.
CORPUS Glandulofum. See PROSTRATmE.
CORPUS Reticulare. See RETICULARE Corpus.
CORPUS cum Caufr, in Law, a Writ iffuing out of Chan-
cry, to remove both the Body and Record touching the
Caufe of any Man lying in Execution upon a Judgment for
Debt, into the King's-Bench, Ucc. there to lie till he has
fristyd the Judgmenrt.
CURPUSCLE, in Phyficks, a Diminutive of Corpus, us'd
to exprefs the minute Parts, or Particles that conifitute Na-
tural Bodies. See PARTICLE, and BODY.
Crpuflcles are the fame with what the Antients call'd
Ims; and difefr both from the Elementary and Hypofla-
tical Parts of the Chymiffs, and the Materia Subtilis of the
Sir Ifaac Newton fhews a Method of determining the Si-
ze, of the Corpufcles whereof the Particles that compofe Na.
tural Bodies confide, from their Colours. See COLOUR.
1i) J                       OV
tORPUSCULAR of Atowic&l Philofhyopb     the Schdriie
or Syflem of Phyficks, wherein the Pha"nomena are account-
ed tor, from the Motion, Refi, Pofition, Arrangment, Bec.
of the minute Corpufcles, or Atoms, whereof Bodies are
The Corpufcalar Philofop1hy, which now flourilhes under
the Title of the Mechanical P1 il1fophy, is exceedingly an-
tient. Leucippus and Democi.trus were the firfi who taught
it in Greece; from them Epicurus receiv'd it and improv'd
it, infomuch that it came at length to be denominated from
him, and was call'd the- Epicurean Pb7ilofophy. See EPI-
Leucippus, again, is faid to have receiv'd it from Mochus a
Phenician Phyfiologiff and Phyfician, before the Time of the
Yrrojan War, and the firfi who philofophiz'd about Atoms: Tho
Gale, who borrows all Profane Philofophy from the Sacred
Philofophy in the Books of Mofes, is of Opinion he might
take the Hint from the Mofaic Hifiory of the Formation of
Man out of the Duff of the Earth.
Indeed, Cafiaubon takes Mazxop, or Maicv, to be the Name
of a Tvri7an, who among his own Countrymen was called
ttt!7  1Mofche, or according to the Method of writing which
then obtain'd, Mofes: whence 'tis conjedur'd that the Mofcbei
or Motchus of the Sryrians, was, in efgec, the Mofes of the
This appears to be the Sentiment of Selden, Arcerius, &c.
But the Opinion of !Bochart is the more probable, who from
Pojidonius and others, takes Mochus for an Inhabitant of Si-
don, and his Philofopjy to be nothing elfe but a Phyfiological
or Natural Hifiory f the Creation.
After Epicurus, the Corptcular Philofophy gave way to
the Peripatetic, which became the popular Syflem. See
Thus, in lieu of Atoms, were introduc'd Specific and Sub-
flantial Forms, Qualities, Sympathies, Uec. which amus'd
the World till Giqiendus, Charleton, des C'artes, fBoyle, New-
ton, and others, retriev'd the old Corpfzitfelarian Hypothefis;
which is now become the Bafis of the Mechanical, and Ex-
perimental Philorophy. See MECHANICAL, ExPERIMEN-
Mr. Boyle reduces the Principles of the Corpufcular Phi-
lofophy to the four following Heads:
Iil, That there is but one Catholick, or Univerfal Matter,
which is an extended, impenetrable, and divifible Sub-
fiance, common to all Bodfies, and capable of all Forms.
This Sir I Newton finely improves on: 'All Things con-
fider'd, fays that great Author, it appears probable to me,
that God, in the Beginning, create, Matter in folid, hard,
impenetrable, moveable Particles; of fuch Sizes and Fi-
' gures, and with fuch other Properties, as moft conduced to
the End for which he form'd 'em: And that thefe pri-
mitive Particles, being Solids, are incomparably harder
than any of the fenfible porous Bodies compounded of
'em; even fo hard as never to wear or break in pieces:
no other Power being able to divide what God made one
in the firfi Creation. While thefe Corpufcles remain en-
tire, they may compofe Bodies of one and the fame Na-
ture and Texture in all Ages: but fhould they wear away,
or break in pieces, the Nature of things depending on 'em
wou'd be chang'd : Water and Earth, compos'd of old
worn Particles, and Fragments of Particles, wou'd not be
L   of the fame Nature and Texture now, with Water and
' Earth compos'd of entire Particles at the Beginning. And
therefore, that Nature may be laffing, the Changes of Cor-
'poreal Things are to be plac'd only in the various Separa-
' tions and new Affociations of thefe permanent Cor~p fcles.'
2d, That this Matter, in order to form the vail Variety
of Natural Bodies, mufl have Motion, in fome or all its af-
fignable Parts; and that this Motion was given to Matter
by God the Creator of all Things : and has all manner of
Direfions and Tendencies.
Thefe Corp ufcles, fays Sir 1. Newton, have not only a
Vis Inertia', accompanied with fuch paffive Laws of Mo-
tion as naturally refult from that Force;  but alfo are
moved by certain afive Principles; fuch as that of Gra-
vity, and that which caufes Fermentation, and the Cohefion
3d, That Matter muff alfo be adually divided into Parts,
and each of thefe primitive Particlesj Fragments, or Atoms
of Matter, mu{l have its proper Magnitude, Figure, and
4th, That thefe differently fiz'd and fhap'd Particles, have
different Orders, Pofitions, Situations, and Poflures; from
whence all the Variety of Compound Bodies arifes.
CORRECTION, in Printing, the Retrenching of the
Faults in a Work; or the Reading which the Mafler, or
in his Place the Correclor, give the firtl Proofs, to point out
and correc& the Faults, to be adjufted, in the Forms, by the
Compofitor. See PRINTING.                        The

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