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Chambers, Ephraim, 1680 (ca.)-1740 / Cyclopædia, or, An universal dictionary of arts and sciences : containing the definitions of the terms, and accounts of the things signify'd thereby, in the several arts, both liberal and mechanical, and the several sciences, human and divine : the figures, kinds, properties, productions, preparations, and uses, of things natural and artificial : the rise, progress, and state of things ecclesiastical, civil, military, and commercial : with the several systems, sects, opinions, &c : among philosophers, divines, mathematicians, physicians, antiquaries, criticks, &c : the whole intended as a course of antient and modern learning

Consort - corporal,   pp. 311-330 PDF (19.0 MB)

Page 311

( 3tr )
-he fame Author finds five Labial
and m; five Palatal ones, d, f, g, ki
j, ch ; two Liquids, I and r ; two
ith each other, as II, andgn; which
ir to the French Language, and the
n and n are properly two Nafal Con-
afs'd thro' the Nofe, and the n a X,
nc'd thro' the ofe ; and in effe&,
Jounce barker for market, deed for
ie Confonants, fome are weak, others
e confiffing in this, That the former
all Emiflion of the Voice which foft-
1+ASbersAn TLA --. ___ 7l"   I
n    w)ic1 Ent;l 'dEt  nave nor.  I he wealc are 11, c, a,
I'). nex_ A -P t h r' t
May be here obferv'd, that when we fpeak of a Perfon's
[ing thro' the Nofe; it muff be underflood in a Senlf
. Adifferent from what the Words feem naturally to im-
,. Since the Nofe in this Cafe concurs lefs to the Pro-
4ition than if he did not fpeak thro' the Nofe; in re-
d the Air not being able to make its way thro' the Nofe,
phuri'd into the Mouth, where it forms a dull obtufe
nda call'd Nafal. See VoicE.
toix the whole we may conclude, that the Excefs of Con-
rnts in one Language above another only confi{ts in this,
tthereare more Modifications of Sound receiv'd and efla-
h'd in the one than the other: For all Men having the
,e organs, may form the fame Modifications; fo that 'tis
nrely owing to Cuflom, nothing to Nature, that the En-
m have not the 0 of the Greeks, the Ain and Hefrb of the
Ares, the cl of the Germans, the gn of the French, the
If the Italians, the U1 of the Welch, &c.
[bat the Chinere have no r, the Iroquois no Labial Confo-
g, the PIlros abundance of Afpirates; and the Arabs
Hrans abundance of Double Con fonants  which laI
Ito this, that they make feveral Organs concur
I _   _1    . . A1 l   1 t]t .  _   L
inc equally to the Iviodithcat!on ot a Sound ; where-
e reft, only one Organ is moved very firongly and
he redt weakly.
Ilfo vifible, that in all Languages the Afpirates,
Letters, are real Confonants ; fince the Throat
Sound as much as the Palate, Tongue, or Lips.
nd all the Conjiwants that may be form'd in
e; there needs nothing but to obferve all the
that the Sound of Speech will admit of, by
J1 have all the Confonants pra6ticable.
, in Mufick. See CONCERT.
ACY, in Law, is taken for a Combination or
o do fomething evil, or illegal: tho in the ori-
the Word, and in its ufe in other Languages,
Agreement, either for good, bad, or Matters
ites and Law-Books, Confpiracy, in a general
unded with Maintenance and Champarty. See
a1 Signification, it is ufed for a Confederacy of
falfly to indid one, or procure one to be indic-
iment of this Confederacy, at the King's Suit,
that the Party attainted lofe his Frank-Law ;
hat he mayn't be impannel'd on Juries, and the
Lands, Goods, and Chattels be efireated; his
and his Body committed to Prifon.
iracies in Cafes of lefs moment, as thofe of
uching felling of Viaual, Thall be grievoufly
!en. VI1I.
ING Powers, in Mechanicks, are all fuch as
ons not oppofite to one another. See PowER,
ILE, or Lord High CONSTABLE, an an-
of the Crown ; now difufed in England, but
in France, where the Conflable commands
Is, and is the firfi Officer in the Army.
the Word from the Saxon, and make it ori-
the Stay or Hold of the King. But others,
Dbability, derive it from Comes Stabuli. the
fIthe Stables,or perhaps of the Horfe, (fee COUNT)
ofe that the Dignity which at firnf was Civil, in
'mne Military, and the Mafier of the Stables made
of the Army. See MASTER.
'uncion of the Confable of England, confifled in
of the common Peace of the Land, in Deeds of
id Matters of War. To the Court of the Conyfable
of the Marfhals, belong'd the cognizance of Con-
eeds of Arms without the Realm, Combats, Bla-
AYlg, AR within it. See MARSHAL.
it Coniable of Enwgland was created by the Con-
,,I'he Office continu'd hereditary till the nith of
!y V111. when it was laid afide, as being fo poweiful as
C 0 N
to become troublefom to the King. Since that tind, thii
Conflable is only created occafionally.
From thofe mighty Magiffrates, the Con,#ables of , gland,
are derived thofe inferior ones, fince cali'd the Conflables
of Hundreds and Franchifes; fir{i ordain'd ib the 13th Year
of Edwzvard 1. by the Statute of Winchefler; which, for the
Confervation of the Peace, and View of Armour, appointed
that two Confiables lhould be chofe in every Hundred and
Franchife. See HUNDRE r, and FRANCHISE.
Thefe are what we now call Conflabil-arii Capitales, ot
High Conflables 3 in regard, continuance of Tine and in-
creafe of People, &)c. have occafion'd others of like na-
ture, but inferior Authority, in every Town, cali'd 'Petty-
Conflables, or Sib-ConiJabuhrli.
The appointing of a Petty-Con/lable belongs to the Lords
of divers Mannors, 7ure Feudi.
Befides there, we have Conf abes denominated from pat.
ticular Places, as Confiable of the -eower, of Dover Caflel
of Windfor-Cafile, of the Caftle cf Cart arvan, and many
other of the Cafiles of Wales; who!< Office is the fame with
that of the Caftellani, or Governors or Cafiles. See Tow-
ER, LeC.
CONSTAT, in Law, a Certificate given out of the Court
of Exch-qutr, of all there is upon record relating to any
Matter in qut-Ilion.
It is alo ufed for an Exemplification or Copy of the Inro.'
meat of Letrtrts P tent.
CONSTELLAXTION, in Aflronomy, an Aftemtblage or
Syfrem of feveral Stars, expref,'d an.' repref-nred under tho
Name and Figure of fome Animal or other thing, ca.l'd alfo
an  yfler.ff. Se STAR.
The Antients portion'd out the Firmament into feveral Parts,
or Coliflellatons, reducing a certain number of Stars under
the Reprefentation of certain Images, in oral ir to aid the
Imagination and the Memory to conceive and retain their
Number, Difipofstion, and even to ditlingatflih the Vsirtues
which they attributed to 'em: In whichb'Sence a Man is
faid to be born under a happy CisJ/eilaton, i. e. under a
happy Configuration of the heavenly Bodies.
he Divifion of the Heavens into Cozflellations is very
antient; and, for ought appears, as old as Ailronomy it 'lfdj
at leaff, it was known to the inofi antient Authors extant,
whether facred or profane.  In the motl antitnt Book of
7ob, mention is made of the Names of fume of 'em ; wit-
nefs that fublime Expoffulation, CGreol thou icftfiain tl-e
fweet Influence of the Pleiades, or lootev the Bands of Ori-
on ? And the fame may be obferv'd of the oidedl among
the Heathen Writers H;,mer and Hefiod.
The Divifion of the Antients only took in the vifible Fir-
mament, or fo much as came under their notice: Tnis they
diffributed into 48 C'nftellations; twelve whereof took up
the Zodiack: The Names they gave them are Aries, rau-
rus, Gemini, Cancer, Leo, Virgc, LA ba, Soro 4ins, Sagit-
tarius, Aquarius, Capriccrnus, 'Picesi from whence the
Signs of the Ecliptick and Zodiack  take their Names; rtho
now no longer contiguous to the Confdcilations which denomi-
nate them. See SIGN. -
The other Stars, on the Northern Side of the Zodiack,
were difpos'd into zti Conflellations, viz. Uja MaJor and,
Minor, !Draco, Ccpheus, Bootes, Corona Se, tent) ionalis,
Hercules, Lyra, (ygnus, CJIzojeia, Perfr ls, AJ;,drorneda,
T'riangulum, Auriga. Poegajis, Eqfnueus, ZDelthinlls, &-
gitta, Aquila, Ophiucus or Serpentarizis and Serpens  To
which have been fince added Antinoris, and Comia Berenices.
The Stars on the South Side of the Zodiack, were diiiri-
buted into fifteen Conflellations; their Names, Cetus, Eri-
danus Fluvius, Lepus, Orion, Canis Major and Minor, Ar-
go, Hydra, Crater, Corvus, Centaurus, Luzpzes, Ara, Corona
Meridionalis, and Pifcis Auftralis: To which have been
fince added twelve others; viz. Pi'enix, Gris, Indus, Ta-
vo, 'Pfces Aufiralis, Pi/ces Volans, 21oucan, Hydri's, an4
xiphias. See each Conflellation, and the Stars contain'd in
it, under its proper Head.
Of thefe Conflellations, the fifteen laff, with the greatent
Part of Argo, Navis, Centaurus, and Lupus are not vifiblc
in our Horizon.
The other Stars, not comprehended under thefe Conflella-
tions, yet vifible to the naked Eye, the Antients called In-
formes, or Sporades, fome whereof the modern Afironomers,
have fince reduced into new Figures, or Conftellations. See
Thus, Hevelius, v. g. between Leo and Urfa .fajor, makes
Leo Minor; and between Urfa Minor and Auriga, over Ge-
mini, makes Lynx i under the Tail of Urfa Major, Canes
Venatici, &c.
In thefe Conflellations, the Stars are ordinarily diflinguifh'd
by that Part of the Image wherein they are found. Bayer
diflinguifies 'em further by the Letters of the Greek Al-
phabet: And many of 'em, again, have peculiar Names, as
A~r urus, between the Feet of Bootes i Gemind, or Lneida,
id the Corona Septentrionalis j   Palilitium, i) the Bu!l's
l 4

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