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Chambers, Ephraim, 1680 (ca.)-1740 / Cyclopædia, or, An universal dictionary of arts and sciences : containing the definitions of the terms, and accounts of the things signify'd thereby, in the several arts, both liberal and mechanical, and the several sciences, human and divine : the figures, kinds, properties, productions, preparations, and uses, of things natural and artificial : the rise, progress, and state of things ecclesiastical, civil, military, and commercial : with the several systems, sects, opinions, &c : among philosophers, divines, mathematicians, physicians, antiquaries, criticks, &c : the whole intended as a course of antient and modern learning

Concentration - consonant,   pp. 293-310 PDF (18.0 MB)

Page 293

293 )
ing nothing to lhew for their Title, or Eflate
:hus called per Adntiphrafln, a' concelando; as
vendo, &c. My Lord Coke calls 'em turbidum:
TRATION, the retiring, or withdrawing of
iss; or driving toward the Centre, the Middles
rnal Cold is faid to concentrate the Heat within
cr Meals, the natural Warmth retires, and as
it were concentrates, to promote the Digeftion. See HEAT,
and COLD.
CONCENTRATION is alfo ufed by Dr. Grew for the
highefi degree of Mixtion, viz. that wherein two or more
Atoms or Particles touch, by a Reception, and Intrufion of
the one within the other. See MIXTION.
This he takes to be the Cafe of all Fix'd Bodies without
Tafle or Smell; their Conflitution being fo firm, that till
'the Particles be detach'd from each other by fome extraor-
dinary means, they cannot af&e& thofe Senfes. See SMELL,
and TASTE.
CONCENTRIC, in Geometry and AfIronomy, fome-
thing that has the fame common Centre with another. See
The Word is principally ufed in fpeaking of round Bodies,
and Figures, viz. Circular, Elliptical ones, &)c. but may be
likewire ufed for Polygons, drawn parallel to each other, up-
on the fame Centre. See CIRCLE, POLYGON, SC.
Concentric flands oppofed to excentric. See ECCENTRIC,
CONCEPTION, in Logicks, the fimple Apprehenfion,
Perception, or Idea which we have of any Thing, without
proceeding to affirm or deny any thing about it. See PER.
The Schoolmen ufually make two Kinds of Conception;
the one fortnal, the other objetlive.
The firfi is defined the immediate and aftual Reprefen-
tation of any thing propofed, to the Mind ; on which foot-
ing, it fhould be the fame thing to the Underfianding, that
a Word or Voice is to the Ear. whence fome call it Verbumn
Mentis. See NOTION.
The fecond is the Thing it felf reprefented by a formal
Conception  But others explode the Notion of an objedive
Conception, as being, in reality, no Conception at all; ex-
cepting where the Mind contemplates its own ACts, Etc.
Formal, or proper Conceptions, are Subdivided into Univo-
cal, where feveral Things are diffindly represented as under
fome common Ratio, or in the fame degree of PerfeCtion;
A4nalogous, where feveral Things are represented as under
fome proportional Likenefs; and Equivocal, where they are
repre ented immediately as fuch, without regard to any corn-
mon Ratio or Likenefs.
CONCEPTION, in Medicine, the firfi Formation of the
Embryo, or Fcetus, in the Womb. See FOETUS, and EM-
Conceptiog is no other than fuch a Concourfe and Commix-
ture of the prolific Seed of the Male, with that of the Fe-
male, in the Cavity of the Uterus, as immediately produces
an Embryo. See EMBRYO.
The Symptoms of Conception, or Pregnancy, are, when
in a few Days after the Conjugal Ad, a fmall Pain is per-
ceiv'd about the Navel, attended with fome gentle Commo-
tions in the bottom of the Abdomen; and within one, two,
three, or even four Months, the Menfes ceafe to flow, or
prove in lefs quantity than ufual. Upon the firft Failure of
this kind, the Woman begins to count the Series of her
Weeks, without taking any notice of the Time before elapfed:
After this, or between the fecond and third Months, but ge-
nerally about the third, the Motions of the Embryo become
perceivable to the Mother; who hereupon becomes troubled
with a Naufta, Vomiting, Loathing, Longing, W. About
this time, the Breafts begin to fwell, grow hard and painful,
and contain a little Milk; the Nipples alfo become larger,
firmer, and darker colour'd, a livid Circle appearing around
'em : The Eves feem funk and hollow. During the two
Months pregnancy, the Woman grows thinner, and Hlen-
er; the Abdomen being alfo deprefs'd; tho it afterwards
ends, and grows gradually larger. See GESTATION.
'he Manner wherein Conception is effctled, is thus laid
fn by the modern Writers; In the Superficies of the Ova-
of Women, are found little pellucid Spherules, confift-
of two concentric Membranes, fill'd with a lymphatic
nour, and connected to the Surface of the Ovaria, un-
icath the Tegument, by a thick Calix, contiguous to the
remities of the, minute Ramifications of the Fallopian
.AC RP {nO  A. R
U10. Vo~w V  DI---
'hefe Spberules, by the ufe of Venery, grow, fwell, raife,
dilate the Membrane of the Ovary into the form of
pilke; till, the Head propending from the Stalk, it is at
gth feparated from it; leaving behind it a hollow Cica-
, in the broken Membrane of the Ovary i which, how-
ver loun grows up again.
C ( N
Now, in there Spherules, while fill adhering to the Ova-
ry, Fetus's have been frequently found: whence it appears,
that thefe are a kind of Ova, or Eggs, deriving their Struc-
ture from the Veffels of the Ovary, and their Liquor from
the Humours prepar'd therein. See EGG.
Hence, alfo, it appears, that the Fallopian Tubes being
fwell'd, and fliffen'X by the Ac& of Venery, with their mup_
cular Fimbrid, like Fingers, may embrace the Ovaries, com-
prefs 'em, and by that Compreftion expand their owA
Mouths: And thus the Eggs, now mature, and detach'd as
before, may be forced into their Cavities; and thence con-
vey'd into the Cavity of the Uterus; where they may either
be cherifh'd and retain'd, as when they meet with the Male
Seed ; or, if they want that, again expell'd. See FALLO-
PIAN :-Zube.
Hence the Pha nomena offalfe Conceptions, Abortion, Fx-
tits's found in the Cavity of the Abdomen, the Fallopian
Tubes, fc. See ABORTION, EC.
For, in Coition, the Male Seed, abounding with living
Animalculas, agitated with a great Force, a briA Heat, and,
probably, with a great quantity of Animal Spirits, is vio-
lently impell'd thro' the Mouth of the Uterus, which on
this occafion is opener; and thro' the Valves of the Neck
of the Uterus, which on this occafion are laxer than ordinary,
into the Uterus it felf X which now, in like manner, becomes
more ative, turgid, hot, inflam'd, moifien'd with the Flux
of its Lymph and Spirits, by means of the Titillation exci-
ted in the nervous Papillee by the Attrition againfi the
Rvgce of the Vagina. See SEED.
The Semen thus difpos'd in the Uterus, is retain'd, heated,
agitated by the convulfive Conflriaion of the Uterus it felf;
till meeting with the Ova, the finef+ and moll animated
Part enters thro' the dilated Pores of the Membranula of
the Ovum, now become glandulous, is there retain'd, nou-
rilh'd, dilated, grows to its Umbilicus, or Navel ; flifles
the other lefs lively  Animalculas: and thus is Conception
Hence, it appears, that Conception may happen in any
Part where the Semen meets with an Ovum: Thus,
whether it be carried theo' the Fallopian Tube to the Ovary;
and there caft upon the Ovum; or whether it meet in fomra
Recefs of the Tube it felf; or, lafily, whether it join it in
the Cavity of the Uterus, it may fill have the fame EffEcr&
as it appears from Obfervation it acaually has. But 'tis pro-
bable that Conception is then moia perfect, when the two,
viz. the Semon and Ovum, are carried at the fame time into
the Uterus, and there mix'd, Uec.
Other Anatomifis chufe to fuppofe the Male Seed taken
up, ere it arrive in the Uterus, by the Veins which open
into the Vagina, &c. and thus mix'd with the Blood; by
which, in the Courfe of Circulation, it is carried, duly pre-
pared, into the Ovary, to impregnate the Eggs. See GEN R-
For the Progrefs of the Fcetus after Conception, fee Nu-
LICAL Veffels, &c.
CONCEPTION Immiaculate of the Holy Virgin, is a Feaf*
in honour of the Holy Virgin; particularly with regard to
her having been conceiv'd and born Immaculate, i. e. with-
out Original Sin; held in the Romi/Z Church on the 8th of
fDecember. Allatius, in his Prologomena on 5Damafcenus,
endeavours to prove this Feafi to have been celebrated by
feveral Churches in the Eayf, as early as the Vl1th Century.
The Immaculate Conception is the great Head of Contro-
verfy between the Scotifis and 21homifts; the former main-
taining, and the latter impugning it. See SCOTIST, and
'The j7acobins efpous'd the Party of S. 7Ibomas, and held
out a long time, in defence of the Virgin's being conceiv'd
in Original Sin; They were condemn'd by Pope Clement VI1.
in s 308, at the Profecution of the Univerfity of 'Paris, and
oblig'd to retra&t.
The Council of 7rcnt, Sefr V. in the Decree of Original
Sin, declares it not to be the Intention of the Council to in-
clude the Virgin under it; Her Conception it calls Immacu-
late; and appoints the Conflitutions of Sixtus IV. to be ob-
ferv'd with regard thereto.
Some Authors have obferv'd feveral Paffages difpers'd in
the old Editions of S. T2'omas's Works, which afTrt the
Immaculate Conception in exprefs Terms; but man" of them
are corrupted in the later Editions, fay fome: tfo others
will have the Corruption lie on the fide of the old ones.
In the three Spani/h Military Orders of S. 7ames of the
S-word, Calatrava, and Alcantara; the Knights take a Vow,
at their Admidion, to defend the Immaculate Conception.
This Refolution was firfi taken in r65 2. See CA IT. 'R AVA, FC..
Peter d'A/4va, and Afjorgo, have publifh'd 48 huge Vo-
lumes in folio on the Myfteries of the Conception.
For Religious of the Order of the CONCEPTION, fee
G ggg                 CON.
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