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Chambers, Ephraim, 1680 (ca.)-1740 / Cyclopædia, or, An universal dictionary of arts and sciences : containing the definitions of the terms, and accounts of the things signify'd thereby, in the several arts, both liberal and mechanical, and the several sciences, human and divine : the figures, kinds, properties, productions, preparations, and uses, of things natural and artificial : the rise, progress, and state of things ecclesiastical, civil, military, and commercial : with the several systems, sects, opinions, &c : among philosophers, divines, mathematicians, physicians, antiquaries, criticks, &c : the whole intended as a course of antient and modern learning

Catholicon - changes,   pp. 173-192 PDF (19.2 MB)

Page 173

M Eixpulfin of the Moors. The .Pollandifts pretend, the
Title was bore by their Predecedors, the Vifigoth Kings of
Spain i and that Alexander VI. only renew'd it to Ferdi-
ard and Ifabella. Others fay, that Philip de Yalois ffi
P-ore the Title ; which was given him after his Death by the
Ecclefiafficks, on account of his favouring their Intereffs.
In fome Epifkles of the antient Popes, the Title Catho-
lick is given to the Kings of France, and of 7eridalem, as
well as to feveral Patriarchs and Primates. The Word is
form'd from the Grcek axJ' vAY, univerfally; whence ot%-
xaztx, univerfal.
CATHOLIC Furnace, is a little Furnace, fo contriv'd, as
to be fit for all kinds of Operations, which do not require
an intenfe Fire. See FxURN.NcE.
CATHOLICON, in Pharmacy, a kind of foft Eleduary;
fo call'd, as being fuppos'd univerfli; or a Purger of all
Humours. Sec ELECTUARY.
1 ifrerent Authors give  rererunct Xeapes rur It: I nat
call'd Catholicon Nicholai is mofi in ufe; it confifis of i6
Ingredients, the chief whereof are Tamarinds, Caflia, Se-
na, and Rhubarb. It is faid to be doable, when there is
a double Portion of Sena and Rhubarb.
The Catholicon for Cyers, only differs from this, in that
it -has no Rhubarb, and that Honey is us'd inflead of Sugar.
CATKINS, in Natural Hifbory, a Subflance growing on
Nut-Trees Birch-Trees, 05c. in Winter time. See PLANTS.
CATLIN, among Surgeons, is a Difmembring Knife,
for cutting off any corrupted Part of a Body.
CATOPSIS, in Medicine, a Diforder -of the Sight;
more ufually call'd Myopia. See MYoPIA.
CATOP.TRICS, the Science of Reflex Tfit'on; or that
Branch of Optics, which delivers the Laws of Light, re-
[~~~~~~~~~~-                              AoA AA^ n   -
a Trom ivInrrors, or ayeeula. -OV 1VXLikLS, aic L.-
CTION; fee alfo VISION, LIGHT, land OPTICs. Un-
nhich Heads, the Dodrine and Laws of Catoptrics are
he Word comies from the Greek x4T*1eyv, Speculum;
cTs, and Adz, video, I fee.
ETOPTRICAL Dial, a Dial which exhibits Objeds by
&ed Rays. See REFLECTING Dial.
kToPTRIc YTelefcpc, a Telefcope that exhibits Objeds
Reflection; fee REFLECTING S1elefcoe.
&TOP'rR1IC C()fula, a Machine, or Apparatus, whereby
Bodies are represented extremely large; and near
extreamly wide, and diffus'd thro a vail Space; and
r agreeable Phrenomena, by means of Mirrors, difpos'd by
Laws of Catoptries, in the Concavity of a kind of Cheft.
F thefe there are various Kinds, accomimodated to
various Intentions of the Artificer: Some multiply
Objeas, fome deform temr; fome magnify, Vc. The
ffure of one or two of 'em, will fuffice to Ihew how in-
more may be made.
i make a CATOPTRIC C'flUla, to reprefent feVeral dif-
Scenes of Objeas, when look'd in at feveral Foramina,
'ovide a polygenous Ciflula, or Chei, of the Figure of
Multilateral Prifm ABC D EF, (Plate Optics, Fig. 19.)
divide its Cavity by Diagonal Planes E B, F C, DA,
recing each other in the Centre G, into as many trian-
r Locules, or Cells, as the Cheff has Sides. Line the
gonal Planes with plane Mirrors : In the lateral Planes
e round Holes, thro which the Eye may peep within
Locules of the Chef. . The Holes are to be cover'd with
i Glaffies, ground within-fide, but not polifh'd, to prevent
Objeds in the Locules froim appearingn too dilindly.
ich Locule are plac'd the diahrent ObjeLs, whofe Ima-
are to be exhibited; then covering up the Top of the
ft with a thin tranfparent Membrane, or Parchment, to
it the Light, the Machine is coinpleat.
or, fromh the Laws of Refiedion, it follows, that the
ges of Objeffs, plac'd within the Angles of Mirrors,
mnultiply'd, and appear Tome more remote than others;
nce the Objeds in one Locule, will appear to take
more room than is contain'd in the whole Cheif.
looking, therefore, thro one Hole only, the Objeds
ne Locule will be feen; but thofe multiply'd, and
s'd thro a Space rfiuch larger than the whole Cheff:
every new Hole will afford a new Scene: According to
lifferent Angles the Mirrors make with each other, the
refentations will be different; if they be at an Angle
ter thani a right one, the Images will be mionfirous, LIc.
he Parchment that covers the Machine, may be made
Lcid, by waflhing it feveral times in a very clear Lye,
in fair Water, and bracing it tight, and expo-
it to the Air to dry. If 'tis Jefir'd to throw any Co-
on the Objeas, it may be done by colouring the Parch-
t. Zahnias recommendsVerditeafe   ground in Vine-
for green; Decoction of Br 1il Wo, for red, fc.
adds, it ought to be varnifh'd, to make it thice;
13 )                   C A
ro make a C.YToPTRIC C6Jfula, to reprefent the Objeti
tbin it prodigioufly multiply'd, and dif s'd tbro a iv@;
Make a polygonous CiJulda, or Chefi, as before, but with-
out dividing the inner Cavity 'into any Apartments or Lo-
cules; (Plate Optics, Fig.z o.) line the lateral Planes C B H I,
B H L A, A L M F, Tic. with plane Mirrors, and at the Fo-
ramina, or Apertures, pare offthe Tin and Quickfilver,that
the Eye may fee thro: Place any Objeffs in the Bottom
M I, v. g. a Bird in a Cage, Cc.
Here, the Eye looking thro the Aperture h i, will fee
each Objec& plac'd at bottom, vafily multiply'd, and the
Images remov'd at equal Diflances from one another.
Hence, were a large multangular Room, in a Prince's Pa-
lace, lin'd with large Mirrors, over which were plain pel-
lucid GlaffTs to admit the Light; 'tis evident the Effedas
would be very furprifing and magnificent. See MIRROR,
CATOPTROMANCY, a kind of Divination, among
the Antients; lo called, becaufe confiding in the Applica-
tion of a Mirror; from xsovrwejrcv, Speculum, and pvc-P7CH,
Divinatio. See DIVINATION.
'Paufanias fays, it was in ufe among the Achaians, where
thofe who -were fick, and in danger of Death, let down
a Mirror, faften'd by a Thread, into a Fountain before the
Temple of Ceres; then, looking in the Glafs, if they faw
a gattly disfigur'd Face, they took it as a fure Sign of
Death: on the contrary, if the Face appear'd frelh and
healthy, 'twas a Sign of Recovery.
CAVA, in Anatomy, the Name of a Vein, the largefi
in the Body, terminating in the right Ventricle of the
Heart ; where it opens with a large Mouth, to convey to
it the Blood brought from all the Parts of the Body, by
the Branches of the other Veins, which all terminate in
the Cava. See VEIN.
At its Entrance into the right Ventricle, it has three
memrbtanous Valves, call'd q7ricufJpides, or Yiriglochines,
from their triangular Figure; fo accommodated, as to al-
low the Blood's paffage from the Cava to the Heart, and
to prevent its 'return. See HEART, andVALVES.
The Cava is divided into the afcending and defcending
Parts : The 'acending Cava, is that which arifes from the
lower Parts; ifo call'd, becaufe the Blood hereby convey'd
'to the Heart, rmounts, or afcends. The defcending Cava
comes from the upper Parts, and is fo called becaule the
Blood hereby brought from the Brain, and other Parts,
defeends. See BLOOD, and CIRCULATION.
CAVALCADE, a formal, pompous March, or Procef-
fionof Horfem'en, Carriages, F5'c. by wayof Parade, or Cere-
CAVALEER, or CAVALIER, a Horfeman, or Perfon
mounted on Horfeback. Antiently, the Word was reflrain'd
to a Knight, or Miles. See KNIGHT, and MILEs. The
French frill ufe C6hevalier in the fame Senfe. See CHIE-
CAVALIER, in Fortification, a Terrace, or Platform,
commanding all around the Place. 'Tis rais'd IS', or 29
Foot high, atop of a Rampart, for placing the Cannon on;
and fecuring the Country about. 'Tis fometimes alfo made
in the Country, to play in upon the Town ; and as much
above the other Works, as a Man on Horfcback is above
a Footman ; whence the Denomination.
In form, the Cavalier is Sometimes round, and Sometimes
fquare ; having always a Parapct to cover the Cannon: Its
Breadth depends on the Number of Pieces to be lodg'd on
it; there being always allow'd an Interval of Io or I 2 Foot
between each two, for the Conveniency of loading and firing.
The Cavalier is alfo fometimes call'd a double !Be fion.
CAVALiERS, or CAVALEERS, confider'd as a Faaion;
fee Toky.
CAVALRY, a Body of Soldiers, who fight, or march
on Horfeback. See SoLDIERs; fee alfo GUARDS.
The Engliih Cavalry is divided into Ilorfe, and -bra-
goons; the French into Comanies of Ordnance, as the
Gardes du Corps, Gens d'Armes, Light-Horfe, &c. and in-
to Regiments, commanded by Meftres de Camp. The
Dragoons, among the Englilb, and the Regiments among
the French, form what they call the light Cavalry. When
an Army is rang'd in order of Battel, the Cavalry is polled
on the Wings.
Bodies of(avalry, rang'd in form of Battel, are call'd
Squadrons. See SQUADRON.
The Romans, in their firfl Wars, were unacquainted with
the ufe of Cavalry, and made their whole Force confifc in
Infantry; infoomuch, that even in the Engagement they
made their Horfe dismount, and fight on Foot; never re-
fuming their Iorfes, but to purfue the Enemy the better
when routed. It was the Cavalry of Tyrrhus, that fit
occafion'd them to alter their Sentiments; but efpecially
that of Hannibal, which firuck t'hem with fuch a Terror,
that the invincible Rcman Legions durit not attack them
on even Ground.
2; z i'The

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