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Chambers, Ephraim, 1680 (ca.)-1740 / Cyclopædia, or, An universal dictionary of arts and sciences : containing the definitions of the terms, and accounts of the things signify'd thereby, in the several arts, both liberal and mechanical, and the several sciences, human and divine : the figures, kinds, properties, productions, preparations, and uses, of things natural and artificial : the rise, progress, and state of things ecclesiastical, civil, military, and commercial : with the several systems, sects, opinions, &c : among philosophers, divines, mathematicians, physicians, antiquaries, criticks, &c : the whole intended as a course of antient and modern learning

Bombard - Burning,   pp. 115-134 PDF (20.3 MB)

Page 115

BON                      '(1
Others make the Thicknefs of the Bomb ., or ,, or
of the whole Diameter and the Diameter of the Aper-
ture 9 or -, of the fame.
Bl6ombs only differ from Hand Granadas, in that the lat-
ter are much lefs, and inflead of Mortars are thrown out of
the Hand; feeGRLANADA. TheWordBoMiicomesfromthe
Latin, fBombus, crepitus, or/ibilus .Ani, by reafon of the Noife
it makes. M. fBIondel, who has wrote the Art of throwing
Bombs, obferves, that the firfi Bombs were thofe thrown
into the City of Wachtendouch in Guelderland, in I5 88;
others pretend they were in ufe a Century before, viz. at
the Siege of Naples by Charles VIII. in I495.
BOMBARD, a Piece of Artillery antiently in ufe, ex-
ceedingly Short and thick, and with a very large Opening:
Some alfo call it Ba/iolic. There were fome of thefe faid to
have carry'd Balls of 300 Pound Weight; Froififrt men-
tions one of 5o Foot long. To load 'em, they made ufe of
Cranes, Uec. The Bombard is fuppofedtohavebeen inufebe-
fore the Invention of Cannons, fee CANNON and ORDNANCE.
Some derive the Word, by Corruption, from Lombard,
as fuppofing 'em first us'd in Lombardy: Menage, after
Vogius, derives it from the Greek Bob4b-, or the Latin
bombus, a bumbo _ ardeo; others from the German RBom-
barden, the plural of Bomber, Balifla.
BOMBARDIER, an Engineer, or Perfon whofe Bufinefs
is to take care of the firing and throwing Bombs out of
Mortars: He firfi drives the Fufee, then fixes the Shell,
loads, and fires. See BOMB,
BoMB-CHEsT, is a kind of Cheft fill'd with Gunpouder,
Bombs,&c. plac'd under Ground, to tear and blow it up into
the Air, with thofe who Rand upon it. Thefe Bomb-
Chefis are frequently us'd to drive Enemies from a Pofi
they have feiz'd, or are about to take poffefion of; and
are fet on fire by means of a Saucidge faifen'd at one
End. See MINE.
BOMB-1tETCH, is a fmall VetTe], firengthen'd with large
Beams, for the ufe of Mortars at Sea.
BONA NOTABILIA, in Law. Where a Perfon dying
has Goods, or good Debts, in Another Diocefe or Juri dic-
tion within that Province, befides his Goods in the Diocefe
where he dies, amounting to the Value of 51. at leafi he
is faid to have Bona notabilia; in which Cafe, the Probat
of his Will, Eic. belongs to the Archbilhop of that Pro-
BONA PATRIA, a Jury or Aflize of Countreymen,
or good Neighbours, fee JuRY.
BONE, in Anatomy, a fimilar Part of the Body, white,
hard and brittle, not diftendible, and void of Senfation ; giv-
! --    - al  - rulr   41, - -, G  WXUX rU.s^  rrl,- Ov
d are all cover'd with a peculiar Membrane, call'd
ofeum, which is extremely fenfible, (fee its De,
and Office in its Place :) They are moil of 'em
iollow, and fill'd with an oily Subfiance call'd
fee MARiROW. Dr. Havers, defcribing the Tex-
ie Bones, obferves, that they confifi of Lamelhe,
lying one upon another; and thofe, again, of Fi-
ing lengthwife, fome to the Extremities of the
others not fo far ; but none of 'em terminating
iflinA$l Ends, as they feem to do; but in lieu of
nu'd tranfverfly, and as it were arch'd: . The Fi-
-, Side, meeting and uniting with thofe of the other;
t each Extremity. So that the Fibres are a Con-
of each other; tho not in the fame uniform Order,
ry long Ellipfes ; not all of a length, however, but
Plate, Jhorter and fhorter than other.
Iamelle, or Plates, are differently difpofed in dif-
Pne ; v. g. In thofe that have a large Cavity, they
guous on each fide, and very clofely united; in
in whof,- Cavities are fmall, or which are altogether
within, many of the internal Lamine are placed
tnce from each other, having betwixt 'em little
s ;. and even in Bones that have a larger Cavity,
hefe leffer Cells are ufually found at each Extre-
fuch Bones as have their Plates contiguous, there
thro and between the Plates, befides thofe made
alThge of the Blood-Veifies: The. firft penetrate
ie tranfverfly, and-look from the Cavity to the
Surface of. the Bone; the fecond run longitudinally
the Pates: The firmc are fiund in every Lamina;
kearer the Cavity, the. greater the Number of
it they don't lie diredly over one another, fo as
nUy continu'd Pa(Ege from the Cavit to the Sur-
he fecond are feldom,46iund but by good Glaftes:
ary Oil is diffus'd, by thefe, throughout the Plates;
4*,*^e fi& kind feewi only fubordinate; ferving
ke Oil into'em.
Arrow in the Cavity of the Bones, is invefled with
anes wherein are included little Bags, or Lobules;
eie Bags are (e/icie, or glandulous ladders fer-
ifhr the Secretion of the Medullary Oil firo the
d for the Reception and Confervation of the fame.
em to have Pakages into each other, as have alfo
the Bags; whereby the Oil has a freer Courfe to the Join'ti
and Subitance of the fBone. The ufe of the Marrow, is td
oil the Subilance of the 'one, and to prevent its being too
dry and brittle; it alfo lubricates the Articulation of the
BIones, and hinders their Ends from being worn, or over-
heated with Motion; and it moiftens the Ligaments by
which they are ty'd to each other: in which it is affiiled by
the Mucilaginous Glands, found in all the Articulations of
the Bones; fee MUCILAGINOUS.
The fBones are generally bigger at their Extremities thai
in the Middle, that the Articulations might be firm, and
the Bones not fo eafily diflocated: But to render the Mid-
dle of the B one lirong withal, fo at to fuffain its allotted
Weight, and refiff Accidents, the Fibres are there more
clofely compaded togetheri and fupport one another: To
which it may be added, that the Bone being hollow, is
not fo eafily broken, as if it had been folid and fmaller:
For of two Bones of equal Length, and of equal Numbers
of Fibres, the Strengtfi of the one to the Strength of the
other, will be as their Diameters. See GIANT.
The fBones are join'd and conneded together various
Ways, according to the various Purpofes they are to ferve:
Some being intended for Motion ; others for Refl, and the
Support o the incumbent Parts only. That Jointure in-
tended for Motion, is call'd .Arthrof/s, or Articulation ;
that for Reft, Symphi/is, or Coalition. Articulation is dlvi-
ded into two Kinds, Diarthrofis and Synartbro/is; and
each of thefe again fubdivided into feveral others, fee AR-
TICULATION, DIARTHROSIS, UC.     Symjphifis is divided
into Sutura, Iarmonia, and Gompha/is; which fee. Be-
fides thefe, are five other Kinds of Connexion, viz. Syffar-
chojis, Synchondrofls, Syneuro/is, Syntenor/s, and SynYmen-
rpst which fee.
The Number of the Bones is various in various Subjefs;
ordinarily 'tis about 2 50 ;"viz. 6I in the Head, 6' in the
Trunk, 6z in the Arms and Hands,, and' 6o in the Legs
and Feet : The Variations are in the number of the Se-
famoidea, the Tleetb, and the Sternum. See the Names
of the feveral Bones in the following Table; their Figures,
and Places in the Plate, Anatomy; and particular Defcrip-
tions of each under their proper Heads.
Os Frontis     I VcrtebreCervicis7  The Os Femoris z
- Occipitis    I -  Dor/i     2I. Rotula          I
0/Ta sParietalia 2  Lumborum    5 Tibia           2
- Temporu.m    2 -Of/is Sacri   6  Fibula         z
O~j~icula Auditus 8 Os Coccygis  3  Oa Tar/i    I4
Os Ethmoides   I Scapuhe        2  - Metatarfi   IO
- Ophenoides   I Clavicuke      a  - Digitorum   e8
-Mali          2 Cofte         24
-  Maxillare   2 Sternum        I                6o
- Unguis       2 0/a Innominata z              ---
-Na/i          2                         muIn al1 245
- Palati       2
Vomer          I The Humerus    2
.Maxilla Inferior x uvna        Z    Befides the 6fa
Dentes Incir/ vi 8 Radius       2  Sefamoidea, which
-Canini        4 0a Carpi      I6  are faid to   be
-Molares      10 - Metacarpi    8  found to the Num-
OsiHyides      I - DigitorUm   3   ber of 48.
6i               6o
Dr. Havers divides the Blood-Verfels of the Bones into
Nutritious and Medullary; the one furnilhing Matter for
the Nutrition, the other for the Lubrication of the B ones.
The Chief of the Nutritious enter the Ends of the B/one,
viz, the Arteries at one End, and the Veins at the other.
The Medullary commonly enter the Sides of the BJone, and
that obliquely; but both by the fame Foramen.
The Medullary Oil is difpens'd from the Cavity where
it is depofited, throughout the whole Subflance of the Baone,
paffing firfl thro the tranfverfe Pores of the firfi internal
lamine into the longitudinal ones; where it proceeds till
it finds other tranfverfe Pores, when it alters its Courfe
again, and exfudes further: Thus it paffes alternately thro
and between the Plates, till it is diffufed throughout. This is
the Method of its Conveyance in BJones, the Plates whereof
are contiguous: Where the Plates are at a Diflance, as
in Bones that have no great Cavity, the fmall Caverns
abovemention'd contain Medullary Glands ; whence the
Plates have the Benefit of the Marrow without the former
Method of Conveyance.
Thus are all the Bones flock'd with Pores, .èc. excep-
ting the Teeth; which have this further Diflinaion, that
they have Nerves inferted into 'em: whereas in all the
other Bones, the Nerves go no farther than the Periofleum.
Befides the large Cavities in the Infide, mofi Bones have
fuperficial Cavities, or Sinus's, which may be diffinguifh'd
into Sulci, or Furrows, the longer fort; and Pits the lhor-
ter ones. On the Outfide are alfo obferv'd Promi'nences,
whereof there are two Kinds; the one a continu'd Part of
the Bone, jetting apparently above its plane Surface, fbr the
more commodious Infertion of the Mufcles, Fec. call'd Apo-
phyirs i

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