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Chambers, Ephraim, 1680 (ca.)-1740 / Cyclopædia, or, An universal dictionary of arts and sciences : containing the definitions of the terms, and accounts of the things signify'd thereby, in the several arts, both liberal and mechanical, and the several sciences, human and divine : the figures, kinds, properties, productions, preparations, and uses, of things natural and artificial : the rise, progress, and state of things ecclesiastical, civil, military, and commercial : with the several systems, sects, opinions, &c : among philosophers, divines, mathematicians, physicians, antiquaries, criticks, &c : the whole intended as a course of antient and modern learning

B - beer,   pp. 75-94 PDF (21.0 MB)

Page 75

A'             I
0w js I
* V BA
T H E   fecond Letter of our Alphabet, and of
moll others, is the firmi Confonant, and firil
Mute, and in its Pronunciation refembles the
]_ ) Bleating of a Sheep; upon which account Pi-
I ertuis tells us in his Hieroglyphicks, that the
Egyptians reprefented the Sound of this Letter by the Fi-
*gure of that Animal. 'Tis alfo one of thofe Letters which
the Eaftern Grammarians call Labial, becaufe the princi-
pal Organs employ'd in its Pronunciation, 'are the Lips.
It has a near Affinity with the other Labials P and V,
and is often ufed for P both by the Armenians and other
Orientals, as in Betrus for Petrus, apfens for abfens, &c.
and by the Romans for V, as in amabit for amavit, Ber-
vra for TFerna, &c. whence arofe that Jill of Aurelian on
the Emperour !Bonofus, Non ft vivat natus eft, fed ti bi-
bat. B requires an intire Clofure andPrefrure of the Lips to
pronounce it, and therefore can fcarce ever end the Sound of
a Word: But when you endeavour to pronounce it there,
you are obliged to add an E to open the Lips again, as in
fob, which  is  founded  7 e  T  s   t r  alfo if  it  pafs
through the Nofe, becomes an M, as appears by thofe
who have the Nofirils flopt by a Cold or otherwife, when
they endeavour to pronounce the Letter M; for Inflance,
many Men, is by fuch an one founded bany PRen. With the
Antients B flood for 300, as appears by this Verfe:
Et B trecentum ter fe retinere videtur.
Wheft a Line was drawn above it, B, it flood for ;000,
with a kind of Accent below it for ±00 ; but among the
Greeks and Hbre'ws this Letter fignified only I. B F in
the Preface to the !Z.ecrees or Senatus-Confilta of the old
Romans, fignified .Bonumn. 'Tis often found on Medals to
mark the Eoocha. Plutarch obferves that the Macedoni-
ans changed 6 into B, and pronounced Z'ilip, Beronice, &c.
for Phif /i, Pberonice, &c. and thofe of fDe ad of
B ufed H, as Rdacqv for 'wizeff ,_ / for   for 'i'v   &c. The
for flibpoffo, obpono, and pro-
wrote obtinuit, as XUznti/ian
:d   for Vor PH5 thus inan
by Giruter, OBRENDARIO
See Hours.
gious TPeall in Honour of P1ac-
olemnity among the Antients,
'ho even computed their Years
ment of the Olympiads. The
1fo cali'd orgia, from the Greek
eafon of the Madnefs and En-
pie appear'd to be poaefs'd at
nh.  They were hldh in Au-
from Egypt*  whence, ac-
vere brought into' Greece by
Difpofition of the Solemnity
Arehon, and was at firfi ex-
Frees became incumber'd with
rionies, and attended with a
Delauchery i infoinuch that
am'd o f 'em, fu pprefs'd them
goout t all Ita/y. The WomeWn
emnity, which is faid to have
ntn- for, a   great N imber of
Conquefi oftethe Iese,, and
i   hyrfiis, i. e.   a little   Lacce
ayes, fnging his Vihories and
enth the Cereionwa waspkept
on~~~* under the Title of aaacca-
h  infial'  P riefleffes  thereof
th    Prieflefes a t t he Time
treers a  over the Moun-
kins    r Hitr dl,
idT r h sin the  'othe'r, howl-
'n  Euboe  !Raccbo, .  M en   and
Vie -      and. Cliulers of
feids aand.  Hips   here  they
)u   And wih wiinge GeGli-
s    ti l   w e a r y   a ndtg i d dyht h e y
H   is~~~~ olCago/anesEr.   ki
s li::Xetry is a   particul ar Kind gf
ablg}~ ~   le wir  wher the fidi i'fihor
and the two lafi lng,: as Egeflas: It is the Reverfe oa a
fDatyle,and takes'its Name fiat  that'of Baccbns, becaufe
frequently ufed in the Hymns compoled in his Honour.
BACCIFEROUSs Plants, whether Trees, Shrubs, or
Herbs, are fuch as bear Berries, i. e. Fruit covered wi th a
thin Membrane, wherein is contained a Pulp, which grows
foft and moiff when ripe, and enclofts the Seed within its
Subfiance.  The Bacciferous Trees Mr. Ray divides into
four Kinds: (r.) Such as bear a caliculate or naked Berry;
the Flo'wer and Calix both falling ofTtogether, and leaving
the Berry bare, as the Salfafras Tree, Cc. (a.) Such as
have a naked monopyreneous Fruit, that is, containing in
it only one Seed, as the Arbutus, 7Terehinthus, Lentiftus,
&c. (s.) Such as have a naked but polypyreneout Fruitr
that is, containing two or more Kernels or Seeds Within it,
as the 7afarninum, Ligriftrum, &c. (4.) Such As have
their Fruit com pofed of many A cini, or round foft Balls fet
clofe together like a Bunch of Grapes, as the Uva mdnrina,
RAubus vulgaris, Rubus Ideus, and the Rubus minorfruc-
tu ccruleo. See Plant.
BACILLI, in 2ledicinc, fuch Cormpofitions as are of a'
cylindrical Figure, like a Stick; call'd alfo Lozenges: from
the Latin Word .Baculus, a StafE
BACK-STAFF, in Navigation, an Infirument by the
French called the Englijl Zvadrant *   invented by Captain
fDavis: of good Ufe in taking the Sun's Altitude at Sea.
It cotfifis of three Vanes, A, B, and C, and of two Arches,
[P/ate of Navigation, Fig. S.] The Vane at A called the
Horizon-Vane; that at B the Shade-Vane ; and that at C
theeSi St-Vane. The leffer Arch B is of 6o Degrees, and
that o C (or fg) of 3 o Degree-
JrO Ufe the R-ack-Staff- the Shadow-Vane B is fet upon
the 6ot0 Arch, to an even Degree of fome Altitude
lefs by iI or r 5 Degrees, than you judge the Comple-
ment of the Sun's Altitude will be: The Horizon-Vane
is put on at A, and the Sight-Vane on the 5oth Arch f g:
The Obferver's Back being then turned to the Sun (whence
the Name of .2t1aek-Staff or BRack-0adrant) he lifts up the
InfIrument, and looks thro the Sight-Vane, railing or fall-
ipg the Quadrant, till the Shadow of the upper Edge of
the Shade-Vane fall on the Iuper Edge of the Slit in the
Horizon-Vane ; and then if you can fee the Horizon
thro the faid Slit, the Obeferv tion is well made: But if
the Sea appear iiffead of thy   Horizon, move the Sight-
Vane lower towards g: If t he Sky appear, move it u-
wards towards f, and fo try if it comes right: Then oh
ferve how manyDegrees and Minutes are cut by thatEdge
of the Sight-Vane which anfwers to the Sight-Hole, and
to them add the Degrees cut by the upper Edge of the
Shade-Vane, the Sum is the Sun's Diflance from the Ze-
nith, Ior the Complement of his Altitude. To find the
Sun's Meridian, or greatef Altitude on any Day, con-
tinue the. Obfervation as long as the Altitude is found
to increafe, which you will perceive y y the Appearance of
thheSea inflead of the Horizon, removing the Sight-Vane
lower: but when yOf perceive the Skyc appear inflead of
the Horizon, the Altitude is diminifh'd; therefore defilt
from  farther Obfervation at that Time and add the De-
grees upon the 60 Arch to the Degrees And Minutes upono
the 30 Atch, and the Sum is the   Zenith Diithance, or Co-al-
titude of the Sun's upper Li mb.
Andd beaufe it is the Zenith Diftance, or Co-altitude of
the upper Limb of the Sun, not the CenIter that is given
'by thei Quadrant, in obbtrving by the upper Edd of
the Shade-Vane, add id Minutes, the Sun's Semidia-
meter, to that which is produced by' your Obfervation,
and the Sum      is.the..true Zenith Diflance of the Sun's
Center. If you obferve by the lower Part of the    Sha
~dow of the Shae,-Vane; then the lower Limb of the Sun
gives the Shadw; and therefore you mull   r    6
nutes from what the  ndrment gives: BBut confidering the
Height of the Obfierer above the Surface of the Sea,
which is commonly between Is  and 2o Foot, you may take
5 oror   6Miutes from  the   r Minutes, and make the Allow-
ance but of io Minutes, or i'  Minutes, to b  added in-
ead -of id Minutes.      Mr. Flamftead contrised a Gaaf
Lens, or double Convex, to be placed in the middle f th
ShadeVane, which makes a fSall bright Spot on the Sli
of the Horizon-Vane, inlead of the Shade: Which is a
great Improvement, if the Glafs be truly made; *br by this
meean th iInhirument aay be ufed in hazy Weather, and.
.  .
"]"-;",Archipelago', .
-   .  ,     I        ; ",         -  _!r   1-:,,-", m
ol   4 -,           , , 1 I  1     ( -  ,  "  ,  -  ,  -   I -     
  . .        ,       i  -,
- ,         1                              ...........
81 A

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