Chambers, Ephraim, 1680 (ca.)-1740 / Cyclopædia, or, An universal dictionary of arts and sciences : containing the definitions of the terms, and accounts of the things signify'd thereby, in the several arts, both liberal and mechanical, and the several sciences, human and divine : the figures, kinds, properties, productions, preparations, and uses, of things natural and artificial : the rise, progress, and state of things ecclesiastical, civil, military, and commercial : with the several systems, sects, opinions, &c : among philosophers, divines, mathematicians, physicians, antiquaries, criticks, &c : the whole intended as a course of antient and modern learning
Arboreus - Artery, pp. *125-144 PDF (18.4 MB)
ci (*ait ) iadmill, Le. ' See CR.&N E, ,is applied by fomne Nagu- 7ut', Moesand other Se -hiUSGU, USHROOM, a Peron, ~skill'd in Trees, #a. See T~atE. Mfs' extent than B otanifl. i,Ueea~cinA of Ihady Bower e Airin. See GARDEN. ato difitfe, by reafon -their unwholefome-They are I only of the Branches of born up by ftrong Lattice- wh make Galleries, Halls, -ally covered. ,xrbours are formed, are u- ch Lime-Trees; in regard ir great quantity of fmall ad: the lower parts are filled icnts are made of Lattice- oi-rails Circles and Arches ymake u e of finall Fillets I made firait, are wrought Wire. the l~atin?, 4'rCus, a Bow1. i a Secret ; and is therefore :cks and Impoffors in Medi- :eand 17,aud under a pre~- egions of ircana. wA Compofitions, under the are Preparation of red Preci- th Spirit of N1itre, and re-~ d again, till a red Powder ed in ;Water, and the Water of Wine put to the Powder 5 lade : which leave a Powder, ;of good ufe in the Gout, schiefly by Stool. Fan Amalgama of Mercury fNitre : the Nitre being :tter is wetted with Spirit away ; and this for fieveral none : what remains is ufed sthe ,fntihe~icum :Poterii, Lsa Sudorific. See A N TI- iar'd of Caput Mortuum of lot Water, filtrating, and e- n leaving it to 1hoot. r Panacea diioicata; is ex- fic-The Recipe was pur- 'larsi by that great Virtuofo hat Prnce's Phyfician, writes icondriacal C ares, continu- ne, Scury 'c 1g, a fiaty A~rch or part of Dins of a Vaulti to Pupport, :e VAULT. d Buttreffcs. See BUT- of arc and bouster, to a-but rt of any curve Line i e gr. See CuVRvE. the Circumference thereof, -Suclh is AB (Tab. GEo- and CIRCUMI.tRENCE. ;sthe two Extremes of the the Perpendicular rais'd in we ofthe Arch. See CHIORD Archbes_-t know their dhaving its -Centre in the divided into 350 Derees 5 ii to the Number of thofe 15an, Arch is faid to be of e DEG.R EE. Hence -bes of the fame or equal Number 'of: Degrees. See equal Chords fubtend equal archcs intercepted between Arborift is an appellation of lels extent than Botanifi. .See BOTANYi &C.. ARBOUR,among Gardeners,>cea kind of fhady Bower or Cabinet, contrived totake the Airin. See GARDEN. Arbours are now gone much into difiufe, by reafon their Seats, apt to be moifi, are unwholefome-They are diftinguilh'd into natural and artifkcial. :: Natural xrbours, are formed only of the Branches of -:Trees, interwoven artfully, and born up by ftrong Lattice- work, Poles, Hoops, &fc. which make Galleries, Halls, porticoes, and green Vifto's naturally covered. The Trees wherewith there Arbours are formed, are u- fually the Female Elms, or Dutch Lime-Trees; in regard they eafily yield, and by their great quantity of fmall Boughs, form a thick Brulh-wood: the lower parts are filled .up with Horn-beam. -Artificial Arbors,. and Cabinets are made of Lattice- work, born up by Standards, Crofs-rails, Circles and Arches of Iron. For which purfofe they make ufe of finall Fillets of Oak, which being planed and made firait, are wrought in.Checkers, and faitened with Wire. ARC, or AR K. See ARPCH . The Words are formed from the latin, /rcus, a fow. ARCANUM literally fignifies a Secret; and is therefore very pertinently applied by Quacks and Impoffors in Medi- cine, who conceal their Ignorance and 1kaud under a pre- tence ofSecrecy-IHence Legions of Urcana. There are alfo flanding officinal Compofitions, under the Denomination of Arcana: fuch are The Arcanum Corallinum, a Preparation of red Preci- pitate; made by diffilling it with Spirit of Nitre, and re- Eeatisig the Diflillation again and again, till a red Powder be procured. This Powder boiled in Water, and the Water poured off, and tartariz'd Spirit of Wine put to the Powder; two or three Cohobations are made: which leave a Powder, much like the Prince's Powder; of good ufe in the Gout, Dropfy, Scurvy, Efc. It operates chiefly by Stool. Arcaltim 7oviale, is made of an Amalgama of Mercury and Tin, digefied in Spirit of Nitre : the Nitre being drawn oA the remaining matter is wetted with Spirit of Wine, and the Spirit burnt away; and this for feveral times till the pungent Tafie is gone: what remains is ufed nmuch withithe fame Intentiois asthe Afntiheticum Poterii, and is recommended by fome as a Sudorific. See ANTI- HECT IC CM. Arcanum duplicatum is prepar'd of Caput Mortuum of Aqua fortis, by diffolving it in hot Water, filtrating, and e- vaporating it to a Cuticle; then leaving it to Ihoot. The zrranum duplicatum, or Panacea duplicata is ex- tolled as a Diuretic, and Sudorific-The Recipe was pur- chafed at the expence of 5op Dollars, by that great Virtuofo theDuke of Holflein Schroder, thatPrince's Phyfician, writes wonders of its great ufes in Hypocondriacal Caies, continu- ed and intermitting Fevers, Stone, Scurvy, Ec. ARC-BouTANT, in Building, a fiat Arch or part of an Arch abutting againfi the Reins of a Vault, to fupport, and prevent its giving Way. See VAULT. fC-boutants are only arch'd Buttreffcs. See BUT- TaEsst. The name is French; form'd of arc and bouter, to a-but ARCH, ARK, AR cJs, a part of any curve Line i e.gr. of a Circle, Ellipfis, orthe like. See CuaRvE. . ARC I of a Circle is a part of the Circumference thereof, lefs than a halfior Semicircle-Such is AB (Tab. Gao- METRY, fig. 27) See CtRChE and CIRCUMtERFNCE. The Bafe or Line that joins the two Extremes of the Arch is called'the Chord; and the Perpendicular rais'd in the middle of thAt Line, the Sine ofthe Arch. See CHORD and SINE. All Angles are meafured by Arches---to know their Quantity, an Arch is defcribed, having its Centre in the Point of the Angle. See ANGLE. Every Circle is fuppofed to be divided into 360 Degrees ; and an Arch'is eflimated according to the Number of thofe Degrees it takes up- Thus an, Arch is Laid to be of 3o, of 8o, of Ioo Degrees. See DEGREE. Hence Equal ARCHEs are fuch Arches of the fame or equal Circles, as contain the fame Number of Degrees. See E A L-Hence ini the fame or equal Circles, equal Chords fubtend equal Arches-And hence, again, Archcs intercepted between parallel Chords are equal. A RC A Radius, CE, 94.98. which biffies the Chord in D; does alMo biffie& the4rch, in E hand is perpendicular to theChord and on the cohtrary-And hence the Problem, to biffea an Arch is folved by drawing a Line AB perpendicular to the Chord in P. Similar AEcsrts are thofe which contain the fame Num- ber of Degrees of unequal Circles. See SIMItAv.-Such are the Arches A B and f DE, fig. 87. Two Radii being drawn from the Centre of two concen- tric Circles; the two Arches intercepted between 'em, bear the fame Ratio to their refpecive Peripheries; and alfo the two Sedors to the Areas of their refpctive Circles. See ANGLE. The Diffance of the Centre of Gravity of an A1rch of a Circle, from the Centre of the Circle, is a third Proportio- nal toa third part of the Periphery and the Radius. See CE N TRE of Gravity. For the Sines, Tangents, Fic. of Arches. See SINE* TANGENT, SfC. ARCH in Aflronomy-Diurnal ARCH of the Sun, is part of a Circle parallel to the Equator, defcribed by the Sun in his Courfe betwixt rifing and fetting, See DIURNAL, D AY, E5c. His no6turnal Zrc1 is of the fame kind; excepting that it is defcribed betwixt his fetting and riling. See NIGHT, RISING, &C. The Latitude and Elevation of the Pole are meafured by an Arch of the Meridian: The Longitude, by an Arch of a parallel Circle. See ELEVATiON, LATLiTUDE, LON- GITUDE, VfC. . ARCH of Progref/ion, or fDire[lion, is an Arch of the Zodiac which a Planet f-ems to pafs over, when its Mo- tion is according to the Order of the Signs. See DImEc- TION. The ARC i of Retrogradation is an Arch of the Zodiac, defcribed while a Planet is retrograde, and moves contrary tothe Orderof the Signs. See RETROGRADATION. ARCE of Station. See STATION and STATIONARY. AR cri between the Centres is anArcbasAI(Tab. AsT ao- NOMjY, fig. 35.) paring from the Centre of the Moon's Shadow, A, perpendicular to her Orbit GH.See ECLIPSE. If the Aggregate of the Arch between the Centres Al, and the apparent Semi diameter of the Moon, be equal to the Semi-diameter of the Shadow; the Eclipfe will be total without any duration: if lefs, total with fome dura- tion ; and if greater, yet lefs than the Sum of the Semi- diameters of the Moon and the Shadow, partial- ARCH of VTifion is the Sun's depth below the Horizon, at which a Star, before hid in his Rays, begins to appear a- gain. See Poetical RISINm. ARcu , in Architedure, is a Concave Building, rais'd with a Mould bent inform of the Arch of a Curve, and fervine as the inward Support of any Superfiruaure. See BUILD- ING. An Arch, fays Sir Henry lfotton, is nothing but a nar'- row or contrafted Vault; and a Vault, a dilated Arch. See VAULT. ,4rches are ufed in large Intercolumnations of fpacious Buildings ; in Porticos, both within and without 'Fem- ples; in publick Halls, as Ceilings, the Courts of Palaces, Cloifiers, Theatres and Amphitheatrcs. See PORtICOi THEATRE, CEILING, 'C. They are alfo ufed as Buttreffes and Counter-forts to fupport large Walls laid deep in the Earth, for Foundations of Bridges and Aquadufs, for triumphal Arches, Gates, Windows, Cc. See BUTTRESS, ARc-boutanZt; &C. Arches are either circular, elliptical, orflrait- Circular ARCHES are of three kinds, viZ.-xfa, Semi- circular, which make an exat Semicircle, and have their' Centre in the middle of the Chord of the Arch. 2dly, Scheme, which are lefs than a Semicircle, and con- fequently are flatter Arches; containing fome, go Degrees, others 7c, and others only 6o. 3dly, Arches of the third and fourth Point, as Come of our Workmen call them; tho' the Italians call them di terzo and quarto acuto, becaufe they always meet in an acute Angle at top-Thefe confide of two Arches of i Circle ending in an Angle at the Top, and are drawn from the Divifion of a Chord into three or four Parts, at pleafure-Of this kind are many of the Arches in old Gothick Buil4ings; but on account, both of their Weaknefs and Unfightlinefs, they ought, according to Sir Henry Wotton, to be forever excluded out of all Buildings. Elliptical ARCHES confift of a Semi-Ellipfis; and were formerly much ufed inflead of Mantle-trees in Chimneys-a Thefe have commonly'a Keyflone andChaptrels or Impofis. Strait ARCims, are thofe whofe upper and under Edges are firait; as in the others they are curved i and thofe two Edges alfo parallel, and the Ends and Joints all pointing towards a Center-Thefe are principally ufed over Win- dows, Doors, Fc 1, [E K J .K,"
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