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Chambers, Ephraim, 1680 (ca.)-1740 / Cyclopædia, or, An universal dictionary of arts and sciences : containing the definitions of the terms, and accounts of the things signify'd thereby, in the several arts, both liberal and mechanical, and the several sciences, human and divine : the figures, kinds, properties, productions, preparations, and uses, of things natural and artificial : the rise, progress, and state of things ecclesiastical, civil, military, and commercial : with the several systems, sects, opinions, &c : among philosophers, divines, mathematicians, physicians, antiquaries, criticks, &c : the whole intended as a course of antient and modern learning

A - accumulation,   pp. 1-20 PDF (18.6 MB)

Page 1

It            .
'.                             .~
.z,4 D I X:
I ,-   3 ii  0  O  F
Ai~~~ A-X  andsoL    tI
I 1. -k 4 Z
'A." vo tan th e Ar& Letter of the
* tMse7 1.BI~aet we LETTER,
Y: Ezqw gnd AtLpABETr i where
i c M~ rt~e~o 4, oqfa~r in each
of tbofle C4,tacities~,y kdeliver'd.
As\4The Gramrinsewill needs have
X the 'irA Letter in all Languages
. antsfomie. of 'em aflign a natural
that it is~the mofl~cfiinple, and the eafieft
articulate. Sounds. TOconfirm this, 71u.
that X is th~e Arilc Sound Nature puts forth
ifiroJ, of Infat 5 and thsat it needs no
form it,, but a' bare opening of the Lips.
{ining. on, this !Sentimenrt ifE Scaliger, ob-
ly, tatl 'the. Aridi Sound, o ut forhbvBv
rsls Bra   4uthl lo ' -';~ each pronouncing the
lieW~ame 'of he ; A   Parent of its relfpec-
ttletin,"fiettin'g Ada7}_..a4e, m akes: the one
and-~the Mother. the 'initialILetter of the
that A4  la c ii; r thle J of the En2-
zch, itc. with~ A6i 4leo  of the Hebrews,
lne, AioW-    o loe two Letters have no
our X,'cxcept . in this, that they are the
.1Alphhabets. What, Sets 'em far afunder,
fnal Ss are npt Vowes 'See VOWL
take the Hebrew J1e~h'to bee neither
ant but wha .b   i
rant, ~~~ buti w atheGmarians call an
7Wii L et ter i l ke t e H: in the Latin and
Idin, tat . Sromapparsto have had
t, wh pobalylerntitfrm the Yrews
Ribria.  ut fieJeiuis d lrev~xgive
Turn  Thoe Pther hae prvedthat
7Arabic Eliph, and Syriac Olpare real
it the fame 'holds of all the othr Afpirates.
in Grammar 5 but 'tis not the lftrue for
rrs, of is obferved to be that which, dumb
taught to pronounce. The Reafon is,
Crid on the Mvufcles, and other-Organs of
'onguie, which are generally wanting in
ie of the Throat and Nofe,, which they
flSound, yet ferves us to exprefs moll of
th e Soul. 'Tis Cfo much' the -Language of
all fudden and extraordinary Occafions,
led to it, as the Intifrument readiecf at
re rpeak our Admiration, Joy, Atigulf~i,
Co<   ruzs reiXn     on this S~lG fentmeant af naligraob
I tearoo ori it', v~iz that it is~the molfi.mple, and the eafieft
pronoulc'd of all articulate. Sounds.~ T o confirm this, Yu.
&raliger ovxfgrves, that X is the A&rfl Sound ;ature put s forth
at ihe crying or thmilein of Intants f and th at it needs no
tiv Sex. Dr Li:lto, fetngAa   afide  ae   h   n
pother Motionl, aornd  t,  ht h bare opening of the Lips.
4ameofthe rMnninge onf this Snd  tiAt of Scaliger, ob-
.      ' Wefi~znry gravel}i that authoe krip tSound Put forth by BoyE
. ,- Lin Fh:'Girlsechf put forth theach 'eofouncin theuHebre
ortiel Letter of theiXAmeof. the  two PaLent of its respec-
$iver th f  evra Alphabettsng. Whatm tse, makes thefone
s   hak thef iental and   ae other the inital SLetter of the
ome Citik ota        the Hoe        ph  o benee.
Afpirate,~  .7 orpnumti Let r;ie  rethe H in   the Latnan
out Lnuas In vaing, thatS4.t lro    ppars to hae had
th fame Latinh French,. c wh   probably lerth of  the Hebrews,
rthey thing  othe turne A Thofe Fathtwo Lettersave   v  no
* AConformity with our Xexcept In this, that they are the
f irthe HebrewiAveral 'Alphabets. Whatnd Sya Oem farafunder,
Co-oant    andA'  that theOe s are hot Vowels. tSee VOWEL.
''.'  ASone. Cri icks take the Hebiew, >4'1eebh'to bee neither
Thiswel, nor ConPoxiant, buG  but t  n the Grmarians call an
OfallthorpneumLtii Letter, A i ob e  tohe E  in the Latin and
our Language : a~ddifi that S. .7eron 'appears to h ave h ad
Pthe faone Thouoht? .  probably learnt it from the R 7eaws
,of the School o Yiberias. But t e jefuits de Y'revoux give
the thing another Turn : Thofe Fathers have provrd that
the Hebrew Mepout  Arabic Eliph, and SyToge wlehic  are real
MConfonants ; and that the fame holds of all the otherhAfpirates.
This 'is a Paradox in Grammar y but 'tis not the lefs true for
*begn a Paradox. See ASPIRATE, and CONSONANT.
W  rall the Letters, vC is obferv'd to be that which, dumb
.Petfons are fooneft taught to pronounce. The Reafon is,
Aitat it~ does not depend on the Mufcles, and other-Organs of
'the Mouth, and Tongue, which are generally wanting in
Miutes;5 but on'tholle of the Throat and Nofe, which they
.ccmnmoply have.~ See DUMBNESS.
his firat, 'ftiipleAt Sound, yet ferves us to exprefs moftof
the Movements of the Soul. 'Tis fo much the Language of
Nature, that upon all fudden and extraordinary Occafions,
we are neceifarily led to it, as the Intirument readiecf at
hand. With this we fpeak our Admiration, Joy, Anguilh,
Averfion, Apprehenfion of Danger, Eec. Where the Paflion
is very firong, we frequently heighten the A, by adding an
Afpirate, Ah. See INTERJECTION.
'Tis obferv'd of the Eng 4/h Pronunciation, that we fpeak
the a with a Slenderer, and more puny Sound than any of
our Neighbours: Ordinarily, 'tis fcarce broad enough for a
French e Neuter; and comes far lhort of the grofs a of the
Germans, which wou'd make our an, or are, or o. In fome
Words, however, as talk, wall, flall, &c. the a is broad,
and deep enough. But this, 'tis obferv'd, may not be the
mere Sound of a; but the Efie& of the antient Orthography,
which, as low as Q Elizabeth, added an u to the a, and
wrote taulk, &c.
The Romans laid a mighty Strefs on their a; and diflin-
guifh'd exaffly, both in writing and fpeaking, when it was
long, and when lhort. To denote. it long, they firft wrote
it double, Aala, for Ala; which not being enough, they
inferted an h between 'em, Ahata : At length they fell to
the common long Accent ala, or ila. See ACCENT.
A was one of the Numeral Letters among the Antients,
and fignify'd 5oo. With a Dafh atop, i, it flood for 5000.
Raronius gives us a Set of antient Technical Verfes,
wherein the Numeral Value of each Letter of the Alphabet is
exprefs'd; whereof this is the firfl.
Polidet a numeros quingentos, ordine retio.
But we fhall here obferve, once for all, that it was not
firialy among the Antients that this Ufe of Numeral Let-
ters had place, as is commonly fuppos'd.  Ifidore Hifp.
leni's, an Author of the VI~th Century, affirms it expregyy:
Latini autem Numeros ad Litteras non computant.  The
Ufage was really introduc'd in the Days of Barbarifm. M.
du Cange, explaining what that Ufage was, at the beginning
,of each Letter of his Gloffary, the generality of Didionary-
Writers, who take it from him, miflake him. The account,
they all fay, is found in Valerius Probas: whereas dut Cange
fays no fuch thing; but only that it is found in a Colleaion
of Grammarians, among whom are lalerius SProbus, and
Petrus Diaconus. Habetur vern ill/d cum Valcrio Probo,
Paulo qDiacono, (it fhould rather have been Petro) 0 alius
qui de numeris fcripferunt, editim inter Grammaticos anti-
quos. See NUMERAL.
A is alfo us'd in the 7ulian Calendar, as the firfi of the
feven Dominical Letters. See DOMINICAL.
It had been in ufe among the Romans long before the
Eflablifliment of Chriflianity, as the firl of the eight Nundi-
nales Littere; in imitation whereof it was, that the Domi-
nical Letters were firfi introduced. See NUNDINAL.
B                     A

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