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Muldoon, Maureen A.; Madison, Frederick William, 1937-; Lowery, Birl / Variability of nitrate loading and determination of monitoring frequency for a shallow sandy aquifer, Arena, Wisconsin
[DNR-123] (1998)

Introduction,   pp. 1-2 PDF (597.7 KB)

Field setting and methods,   pp. 2-9 PDF (2.3 MB)

Page 2

groundwater nitrate concentrations, and 3) to develop recommendations concerning monitoring
frequency for such aquifers. Specifically we hoped to examine the distsribution of nitrate and
cloride across hydrographs generated by rainfall or other climatic events
                             FIELD SETTING AND METHODS
 An existing research site, in the Lower Wisconsin River Valley, provided a controlled setting
 where we could explore the temporal variability of nitrate loading in shallow sandy aquifers. The
 site was established to investigate the effects of ridge tillage on the movement of agrichemicals in
 the unsaturated zone under corn and soybeans (Lowery and McSweeney, 1992; Fermanich, 1995)
 and was ideally suited for monitoring of nitrate in the saturated zone.
 Geologic Setting
 The research site, located north of Arena, Wisconsin, in eastern Iowa County, is within the
 "Driftless" or unglaciated portion of the Lower Wisconsin River Basin (figure 1). The bedrock
 geology of the basin consists of Precambrian crystalline rock overlain by a thick sequence of
 relatively-flat-lying Cambrian sandstone, shale, and Ordovician dolomite. These sedimentary
 strata dip and thicken to the southwest (Hindall and Borman, 1974). During Late Pleistocene
 time, meltwater streams cut deeply into Paleozoic bedrock and deposited a nearly 200 ft thick
 sequence of sand and gravel in the Wisconsin River Valley; lake sediments were deposited in
many of the tributary valleys. A thin loess cover blankets the bedrock uplands.

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