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Bureau of Mines / Minerals yearbook 1988
Year 1988, Volume 1 (1988)

Ampian, Sarkis G.
Clays,   pp. 251-288 PDF (5.3 MB)


Page 283

TABLE 31 —Continued 
KAOLIN: WORLD PRODUCTION, BY COUNTRY' 
(Thousand short tons) 
Country2 
1984 
1985 
1986 
1987P 
1988e 
Pakistan 
13 
7 
41 
36 
35 
Paraguay 
55 
66 
~66 
~66 
66 
Peru 
1 
(8) 
7 
(8) 
(8) 
Poland 
50 
53 
54 
~54 
55 
Portugal 
115 
88 
60 
63 
66 
Romaniae 
450 
450 
450 
440 
440 
South Africa, Republic of 
1 50 
142 
139 
167 
~203 
Spain (marketable)9 
352 
456 
413 
477 
440 
SriLanka 
12 
6 
7 
8 
~8 
Swedene 
(3 8) 
(8) 
(8) 
(8) 
(8) 
Taiwan 
88 
84 
70 
74 
~90 
Tanzania 
2 
2 
e~ 
e~ 
2 
Thailand 
65 
118 
~146 
~228 
~297 
Turkey 
61 
76 
86 
148 
~231 
U.S.S.R.e 
3,100 
3,200 
3,300 
3,300 
3,300 
United Kingdom 
3,296 
3,472 
3,21 1 
3,372 
3,750 
United States1° 
7,953 
7,793 
8,549 
8,827 
~9,891 
Venezuela 
24 
~25 
~24 
28 
~27 
Vietname 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
Yugoslaviae 
6222 
225 
230 
235 
275 
Zimbabwe 
1 
1 
1 
1 
(8) 
Total 
r22,751 
r24,6~ 
25,765 
26,455 
28,365 
e Estimat~i. P Preliminary. r R~i~d. 
1 Table includes data available through July 9, 989. 
2 In addition tothe countries listed, China, Lebanon, and Suriname also produced
kaolin, but information is inadequateto make reliable 
estimates of output levels. Morocco produced less than 500 tons in each of
the years covered by this table. 
3 Reported figure. 
4 May include ball clay and other clays grouped for statistical purposes
as kaolin. 
5 Excludes Western Australia. 
6 Data for year ending June 30 of that stated. 
7lncludes kaolinitic clay. 
8 Less than 1/2 unit. 
9lncludes crude and washed kaolin and refractory clays not further described.
10 (~olin sold or used by producers. 
CLAYS MINERALS YEARBOOK—1988with a more aggressive marketing strategy.
The takeover of ~ small- and medium-sized British brickmakers continued with
the multinational industrial conglomerate, Hanson Trust PLC, bidding $100
million for George Armitage and Sons PLC.27 Armitage produced about 104 million
bricks per year at its 3 brick factories: Howley Park (57 mulion) and Swillington
(31 million) near 
Leeds, and Whinney Hill (16 million) at Accrington. The Armitage line also
included payers, hand-thrown, terra cotta, and specialty abrasion-resistant
materials. The building materials division of Tarmac PLC agreed to buy the
Avonmouth-based Severn Valley Brick Co. (Sevalco), the United Kingdom subsidiary
of the American Company Phelps Dodge Corp., for $20 million?~ 
In earlier moves, Tarmac purchased Westbrick Ltd. and Hawkins Tiles Ltd.,
both of which specialized in the high-quality end of the market such as specialty
shapes and colored and handmade bricks. In keeping with its restructing program,
Alfred McAlpine PLC sold its Scottish brickmaking works, in Errol, Perthshire,
to Marley PLC for $5.4 million.29 This acquisi~ tion, Marley's first in Scotland,
produces a full line of facing and engineering bricks and tiles. The newly
~ operational Lingl tunnel kilns are currently producing about 10 million
bricks per year, all from locally derived clays. Marley plans to expand the
market area for the company's bricks into northern England. Finally, the
engineering, building, and construction materials firm, Marshalls Halifax
PLC, merged with the Wakefield clay brick producer, George Armitage and Sons
PLC to form a new diversified construction company.3° 
 A major undertaking was instituted at Baggeridge Brick PLC's newly rebuilt
brick factory at Hartlebury for the production of slop-molded brick.3' Slop-molded
bricks are relatively uncommon in the United Kingdom and initial output at
the factory was to be about 13 million bricks per year. The new bricks closely
resemble old handmade bricks and are not surficially sanded. Another new
product introduced by Baggeridge was its new line of true blue bricks from
the new Lin~1 tunnel kiln at its Kingsbury factory. 2 Ordinarily, blue bricks
are fired batchwise in intermittent kilns. Commissioning of the new tunnel
kiln, part of an overall $13 million investment at Kingsbury, strategically
fits the company's goal of producing high-quality facing and engineering
bricks from the local Etruria mails. The new kiln will be producing upward
of 500,000 blue bricks weekly. 
 ECC's ceramic division invested $11 million to establish a clay plant, claimed
to be the most comprehensive and modern centralized unit of its 
283 


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