Bureau of Mines / Minerals yearbook: Metals and minerals 1977
Year 1977, Volume 1 (1977)
DeHuff, Gilbert L.
Manganese, pp. 617-628 PDF (1.6 MB)
628 MINERALS YEARBOOK, 1977 TECHNOLOGY With the assistance of the Manganese Centre, Paris, France, a variety of informative papers on the metallurgy of manganese were published in English and French under one cover (with abstracts of each paper in four languages—French, English, German, and Spanish): Manganese—Its resources and metallurgy, P. L. Dancoisne; Cast austenitic manganese steels, P. Detrez; Calloy—A new wear resistant alloy steel, A. Theckston and P. J. Mutton; Manganese and the engineering properties of steels, C. D. Desforges; Manganese and the properties of weldable structural steels, G. Murry; Development of a high manganese steel with good toughness, R. L. Miller; Plate properties of a low carbon 4% Mn steel, A. Brownrigg and G. G. Brown; The role of manganese additions in austenitic stainless steels,. J. Hochmann; Manganese in aluminium alloys, L. F. Mondolfo and P. L. Dancoisne; Manganese in copper alloys, G. Greetham; Magnetic manganese materials, P. Hagenmuller and J. Claverie; Corrosion preventatives based on manganese and its compounds, K. Farrow, A. M. Pye, and G. Sanderson; Research and the development of manganese, P. L. Dancoisne. Several interesting photographs of manganese mines, plants, and applications, unrelated to the articles, were included in this special issue of the magazine.'2 The Engine and Transmission Products Group, Federal-Mogul Corp., Ann Arbor, Mich., developed a new aluminum bearing alloy for heavy-duty engine bearing applications. The alloy, consisting of 1-1/2% manganese, 3% cadmium, 1% copper, 1% nickel, and an aluminum base, has high fatigue and stress resistance. It was being produced at the company's St. Johns, Mich., plant. It is cast and rolled into thin strips which are then bonded onto steel strips to form a bimetallic bearing material." Matushita Electric Industrial Ltd., Osaka, Japan, developed a new, permanent anisotropic magnet made of manganese, aluminum, and carbon. The new magnet has high mechanical strength and good machinability with a higher magnetic energy than the conventional alnico magnets that are made with nickel and cobalt. It was believed to be particularly suitable for use in measuring and control equipment, and for microswitches. Dr. Yukio Tanaka, St. Mary's Hospital, Montreal, Canada, reported at the national meeting of the American Chemical Society that preliminary studies of epileptic child- ren and their mothers suggested that manganese deficiency was the cause of epilepsy in certain cases and that a dietary supplement of this trace element could be helpful. The growing use of methylcyclopentadienyl manganese tricarbonyl (MMT) as an antiknock additive to gasoline was under attack by the automobile manufacturers, who claimed that it built up deposits in the combustion chamber and increased hydrocarbon emissions. Plugging of the catalytic converters that have come into use, an earlier complaint of the automakers, appears not to be a matter of concern at the lower concentrations of MMT, except possibly under severe operating conditions such as trailer towing. Proponents of the additive, the oil companies and the only producer, Ethyl Corp., have maintained that insufficient testing has been done at the proper low concentrations. Coordinating Research Council (CRC), a research organization sponsored by the oil and automobile industries, was engaged in early 1978 in conducting California road tests with the objective of arriving at the answer, which may be a matter of deciding what is an acceptable concentration. Costs of producing gasoline and conservation of oil are at stake, and explain the oil industry's interest. This is another instance of balancing clean air objectives against energy costs. Ethyl Corp. estimated that, by yearend 1977, approximately 60% of U.S. refining capacity was using MMT to improve the octane rating of unleaded gasoline.'4 ' Supervisory physical scientist, Division of Ferrous Metals. ' Weiss, Stanley A. Manganese—The Other Uses. Metal Bulletin Books Ltd., London, 1977, 360 pp. ' Steel Times (London). $40m Expansion at Bell Bay Ferro-Alloy Plant. V. 205, No.5, May 1977, p. 449. 4Yolen, S. Urucum Mine Reopens. Am. Metal Market, v. 84, No. 20, Jan. 28, 1977, p. 14. ' Yolen, S. Brazil's Exports, Production Soar. Am. Metal Market, v. 86, No. 101, May 24, 1978, p. bA. 6Metal Bulletin (London). No. 6215, Aug. 9, 1977, p. 21. 7Mining Journal (London). V. 289, No. 7420, Nov. 4, 1977, p.381. ~—-—-—. V. 289, No. 7420, Nov. 4, 1977, p. 379. ' Metal Bulletin (London). No. 6227, Sept. 23, 1977, p. 25. ' °Skillings' Mining Review. V. 67, No. 17, Apr. 29, 1978, p. 19. "Varentsov, I. M., and V. P. Rakhmanov. Deposits of Manganese. Ch. in Ore Deposits of the U.S.S.R., ed. by Academician V. I. Smirnov. Pitman Publishing, London, v. 1, 1977, pp. 114-178. 12Materiaux & Techniques (Paris). Manganese. Special Issue, December 1977, 134 pp. "American Metal Market. High-Strength Bearing Alloy Developed by Federal-Mogul. V. 85, No. 142, July 25, 1977, p. 21. ' 4Anderson, Earl V. Phasing Load Out of Gasoline: Hard Knocks for Load Alkyls Producers. Chem. & Eng. News, v. 56, No. 6, Feb. 6, 1978, pp. 12-16. Wrigley, A. Manganese Fuel Additives Boost Smog: Faix. Am. Metal Market, v. 86, No. 42, Mar. 2, 1978, p. 3.
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