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Bureau of Mines / Minerals yearbook: Metals and minerals 1977
Year 1977, Volume 1 (1977)

DeHuff, Gilbert L.
Manganese,   pp. 617-628 PDF (1.6 MB)


Page 620

 MINERALS YEARBOOK, 1977620 
Table 5.—Ferromanganese and silicomanganese produced in the United
States and 
manganese ore' consumed in their manufacture 
Production 
Manganese ore' consumed 
(gross weight, short tons) 
Ferromanganese 
Siico- 
man- 
ganese 
(gross 
weight, 
short tons) 
Foreign2 
 Per ton of Domestic2 ferroman- 
 ganese 
 made3 
Per ton of 
ferroman 
ganese and 
silicoman 
ganese 
made3 
Year 
Gross 
weight 
(short 
tons) 
Manganese content 
Percent Short tons 
1973          
1974          
1975          
1976          
1977          
683,075 
544,361 
575,809 
482,662 
334,134 
78.8 538,11978.0 424,40578.9 454,30979.0 381,32878.8 263,136 
184,000 
196,000 
143,000 
129,000 
120,000 
1,648,806 
1,348,425 
1,389,300 
1,208,336 
889,296 
 25,912 2.4 55,822 2.5 48,011 2.4 53,632 2.5 35,769 2.6 
1.9 
1.8 
1.9 
2.0 
1.9 
 1Containing 35% or more manganese (natural). 
 2lncludes ore used in producing silicomanganese and metal. 
 3lncludes ore used in producing silicomanganese4Ratio of ore consumed to
ferromanganese produced if silicomanganese is considered a special grade
of ferromanganese. 
 Ferromanganese.—The only domestic production of ferromanganese
in
blast furnaces in 1977 was at the Johnstown, Pa., plant of Bethlehem Steel
Corp. A disastrous flood on July 19 halted production and seriously damaged
the furnace and its auxiliary equipment. There was no further production
for the remainder of the year. Because of oversupply of the alloy and low
prices relative to costs, there was little prospect for resumption of production
in the near future. Electric furnaces were used to produce ferromanganese
for shipment by five companies in six plants: Airco Alloys Div., Airco Inc.,
Calvert City, Ky.; Ohio Ferro-Alloys Corp., Philo, Ohio; Roane Electric Furnace
Co. (Englehard Minerals & Chemicals Corp.), Rockwood, Tenn.; TennTex
Alloy Corp. of Houston, Houston, Tex. (under lease to Union Carbide Corp.);
and Union Carbide Corp., Marietta, Ohio, and Portland, Oreg. Fused-salt electrolysis
continued to be used by Chemetals Div., Diamond Shamrock Corp., Kingwood,
W.Va., to make low carbon ferromanganese sold under the trade name of Massive
Manganese. Shipments of ferromanganese from U.S. furnaces totaled 338,000
tons, compared with 494,000 tons in 1976 and 556,000 tons in 1975. 
 The ferromanganese production reported in the various tables of this chapter
is net production; that is, the quantity of ferromanganese produced for shipment
outside the producing ferroalloy facility. It does not include the remelt
material; that is, the fines, offgrade, or other ferromanganese output of
the furnace that was fed back to the furnace or lost in the plant, and which
is included in gross production data report- 
ed by the furnace operator. It does include ferromanganese made for use in
the company's steel furnaces at the same or other location. 
Table 6.—Manganese ore used in producing ferromanganese, silicomanganese,
and manganese metal in the United States in 1977, by source of ore 
Gross 
Mn 
Source weight (short 
content, 
natural 
tons) 
(percent) 
Domestic' 35,769 44 
Foreign: 
  Africa 304,132 47 
  Australia 77,743 49 
  Brazil 367,692 47 
  Cuba1 25,287 48 
  India 38,106 46 
  Mexico 23,184 39 
  USSR.' 4,267 46 
Unidentified 48,885 — — 
 Tota.l 925,065 47 
 1Most, if not all, from U.S. Government excess stockpile disposals. 
Silicomanganese.—Domestic production 
of silicomanganese decreased to 120,000 short tons from the 129,000 tons
produced in 1976. This is net production produced for shipment and does not
include silicomanganese produced for use as an intermediate in the same plant
for the production of medium- or low-carbon ferromanganese. Silicomanganese
shipments from furnaces were 122,000 tons, compared with 132,000 tons in
1976 and 126,000 tons in 1975. Five companies used eight plants to produce
silicomanganese for shipment in 1977: Airco Alloys Div., Airco Inc., Calvert
City, Ky., and Theodore (Mobile), Ala.; Ohio FerroAlloys Corp., Philo, Ohio;
Roane Electric 


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