Bureau of Mines / Minerals yearbook: Metals and minerals 1977
Year 1977, Volume 1 (1977)
DeHuff, Gilbert L.
Manganese, pp. 617-628 PDF (1.6 MB)
MINERALS YEARBOOK, 1977620 Table 5.—Ferromanganese and silicomanganese produced in the United States and manganese ore' consumed in their manufacture Production Manganese ore' consumed (gross weight, short tons) Ferromanganese Siico- man- ganese (gross weight, short tons) Foreign2 Per ton of Domestic2 ferroman- ganese made3 Per ton of ferroman ganese and silicoman ganese made3 Year Gross weight (short tons) Manganese content Percent Short tons 1973 1974 1975 1976 1977 683,075 544,361 575,809 482,662 334,134 78.8 538,11978.0 424,40578.9 454,30979.0 381,32878.8 263,136 184,000 196,000 143,000 129,000 120,000 1,648,806 1,348,425 1,389,300 1,208,336 889,296 25,912 2.4 55,822 2.5 48,011 2.4 53,632 2.5 35,769 2.6 1.9 1.8 1.9 2.0 1.9 1Containing 35% or more manganese (natural). 2lncludes ore used in producing silicomanganese and metal. 3lncludes ore used in producing silicomanganese4Ratio of ore consumed to ferromanganese produced if silicomanganese is considered a special grade of ferromanganese. Ferromanganese.—The only domestic production of ferromanganese in blast furnaces in 1977 was at the Johnstown, Pa., plant of Bethlehem Steel Corp. A disastrous flood on July 19 halted production and seriously damaged the furnace and its auxiliary equipment. There was no further production for the remainder of the year. Because of oversupply of the alloy and low prices relative to costs, there was little prospect for resumption of production in the near future. Electric furnaces were used to produce ferromanganese for shipment by five companies in six plants: Airco Alloys Div., Airco Inc., Calvert City, Ky.; Ohio Ferro-Alloys Corp., Philo, Ohio; Roane Electric Furnace Co. (Englehard Minerals & Chemicals Corp.), Rockwood, Tenn.; TennTex Alloy Corp. of Houston, Houston, Tex. (under lease to Union Carbide Corp.); and Union Carbide Corp., Marietta, Ohio, and Portland, Oreg. Fused-salt electrolysis continued to be used by Chemetals Div., Diamond Shamrock Corp., Kingwood, W.Va., to make low carbon ferromanganese sold under the trade name of Massive Manganese. Shipments of ferromanganese from U.S. furnaces totaled 338,000 tons, compared with 494,000 tons in 1976 and 556,000 tons in 1975. The ferromanganese production reported in the various tables of this chapter is net production; that is, the quantity of ferromanganese produced for shipment outside the producing ferroalloy facility. It does not include the remelt material; that is, the fines, offgrade, or other ferromanganese output of the furnace that was fed back to the furnace or lost in the plant, and which is included in gross production data report- ed by the furnace operator. It does include ferromanganese made for use in the company's steel furnaces at the same or other location. Table 6.—Manganese ore used in producing ferromanganese, silicomanganese, and manganese metal in the United States in 1977, by source of ore Gross Mn Source weight (short content, natural tons) (percent) Domestic' 35,769 44 Foreign: Africa 304,132 47 Australia 77,743 49 Brazil 367,692 47 Cuba1 25,287 48 India 38,106 46 Mexico 23,184 39 USSR.' 4,267 46 Unidentified 48,885 — — Tota.l 925,065 47 1Most, if not all, from U.S. Government excess stockpile disposals. Silicomanganese.—Domestic production of silicomanganese decreased to 120,000 short tons from the 129,000 tons produced in 1976. This is net production produced for shipment and does not include silicomanganese produced for use as an intermediate in the same plant for the production of medium- or low-carbon ferromanganese. Silicomanganese shipments from furnaces were 122,000 tons, compared with 132,000 tons in 1976 and 126,000 tons in 1975. Five companies used eight plants to produce silicomanganese for shipment in 1977: Airco Alloys Div., Airco Inc., Calvert City, Ky., and Theodore (Mobile), Ala.; Ohio FerroAlloys Corp., Philo, Ohio; Roane Electric
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