Bureau of Mines / Minerals yearbook: Metals and minerals 1977
Year 1977, Volume 1 (1977)
Schottman, Frederick J.
Ferroalloys, pp. 383-398 PDF (1.7 MB)
1976 1977 Shipments Gross weight (short tons) Value (thousands) Production Shipments Alloy Gross element Gross Value weight con- weight (thou- (short tamed (short tons) (average tons) sands) percent) --~ 482,662 128,917 79 66 494,222 132,364 $207,505 52,649 334,134 119,758 79 66 337,930 121,651 $141,560 43,112 860,799 57 890,844 409,726 894,765 56 898,455 392,152 66 69 37 60 161,757 30,912 50,680 20,195 82,774 39,059 32,620 21,481 177,552 23,126 53,273 15,836 68 70 37 63 193,006 23,107 42,949 17,228 84,932 24,703 20,770 29,292 60 65 24 XX 263,544 933 92,689 50,942 175,934 6,359 11,173 134,322 269,787 1,119 88,644 46,029 62 65 24 XX 276,290 1,211 85,467 49,745 159,697 10,851 12,026 159,813 1,910,218 XX 1,925,538 997,668 1,754,231 XX 1,770,749 919,211 XX Not applicable. 1D~ not include alloys consumed in the making of other ferroalloys. 2lncludes fused-salt electrolytic low-carbon ferromanganese (massive manganese). 3lncludes silicon metal, silvery iron, and miscellaneous silicon alloys. 4lncludes chromium briquets, exothermic chromium additives, other miscellaneous chromium alloys, and chromium metal. 5lncludes ferroaluminum, ferroboron and other complex boron additive alloys, ferromolybdenum, ferronickel, ferrotitanium. ferrotungsten. ferrovanadium, ferrozirconium, spiegeleisen, and other miscellaneous alloys. 384 MINERALS YEARBOOK, 1977 Table 2.—Ferroalloys produced and shipped from furnaces in the United Statesl Production Alloy Gross element weight con- (short tamed tons) (average percent) Ferromanganese° Silicomanganese__________ Ferrosilicon3 -__________ Chromium alloys: Ferrochroinium: High-carbon 167,125 Low-carbon — — — 28,140 Ferrochroinium-silicon - 54,182 Other alloys4 19,800 Total 269,247 Ferrocolumbium 1,205 Ferrophosphorus 110,903 Other5 56.485 Grandtotal DOMESTIC PRODUCTION Total production and total shipments of ferroalloys were lower in 1977 than in the previous year. The gross weight of both production and shipments, and the value of shipments, all declined 8%. Of the major alloy groups, production and shipments of the silicon alloys and the chromium alloys each increased slightly, while those for manganese alloys dropped. Production of ferrochromium continued to shift from lowcarbon to high-carbon grades. The Ferroalbye Association reported that its members used 8.27 billion kilowatt-hours of electricity in 1977, 8% lower than that used in 1976. With lower overall production, several plants were shutdown, at least temporarily. Ohio Ferro-Alloys Corp. permanently closed its ferrosilicon plant at Brilliant, Ohio, and temporarily stopped production at Powhatan Point, Ohio. The Brilliant plant had a reported capacity of 30,000 to 40,000 tons per year of 75% ferrosilicon. Union Carbide Corp. stopped production of ferromanganese at the Tenn-Tex Alloy plant in Houston, Tex. The plant had three furnaces with a capacity of 40,000 tons per year. Union Carbide leased the plant from Sandgate Corp. until 1980, but found the plant uneco nomical in the current market for ferromanganese. The only blast furnace producing ferromanganese in the United States was closed by Bethlehem Steel Corp. when its Johnstown, Pa. plant was heavily damaged by a flood. As part of a plan to reduce steelmaking activity at the plant, it was decided not to restart ferromanganese production. A new 40-megawatt ferrosilicon furnace was started at the new Bridgeport, Ala. plant of Tennessee Alloys Co. This new plant was to be operated by the TAC Alloys division of International Minerals & Chemical Corp. (IMC) and was owned 75% by IMC and 25% by Allegheny Ludlum Steel Corp. The new furnace replaced the three small furnaces at the old Bridgeport plant. This resulted in a 50% increase in capacity to 75,000 tons per year of 50% ferrosilicon. Molycorp, Inc., a producer of specialty ferroalloys, merged with and became a subsidiary of Union Oil Co. of California. Molycorp's holdings of stock also gave Union Oil an interest in Kawecki-Berylco Industries, Inc., a producer of silicon metal and ferrocolumbium.
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