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Bureau of Mines / Minerals yearbook: Metals and minerals 1977
Year 1977, Volume 1 (1977)

Schottman, Frederick J.
Ferroalloys,   pp. 383-398 PDF (1.7 MB)


Page 384

 1976 1977 
Shipments 
Gross weight (short tons) 
Value (thousands) 
 Production Shipments 
 Alloy 
Gross element Gross 
   Value 
weight con- weight (thou- 
(short tamed (short 
tons) (average tons) sands) 
 percent) --~ 
482,662 
128,917 
79 
66 
494,222 
132,364 
$207,505 
52,649 
334,134 
119,758 
79 
66 
337,930 
121,651 
$141,560 
43,112 
860,799 
57 
890,844 
409,726 
894,765 
56 
898,455 
392,152 
66 
69 
37 
60 
161,757 
30,912 
50,680 
20,195 
82,774 
39,059 
32,620 
21,481 
177,552 
23,126 
53,273 
15,836 
68 
70 
37 
63 
193,006 
23,107 
42,949 
17,228 
84,932 
24,703 
20,770 
29,292 
60 
65 
24 
XX 
263,544 
933 
92,689 
50,942 
175,934 
6,359 
11,173 
134,322 
269,787 
1,119 
88,644 
46,029 
62 
65 
24 
XX 
276,290 
1,211 
85,467 
49,745 
159,697 
10,851 
12,026 
159,813 
1,910,218 
XX 
1,925,538 
997,668 
1,754,231 
XX 
1,770,749 
919,211 
 XX Not applicable. 
 1D~ not include alloys consumed in the making of other ferroalloys. 
 2lncludes fused-salt electrolytic low-carbon ferromanganese (massive manganese).
 3lncludes silicon metal, silvery iron, and miscellaneous silicon alloys.
 4lncludes chromium briquets, exothermic chromium additives, other miscellaneous
chromium alloys, and chromium metal. 
 5lncludes ferroaluminum, ferroboron and other complex boron additive alloys,
ferromolybdenum, ferronickel, ferrotitanium. ferrotungsten. ferrovanadium,
ferrozirconium, spiegeleisen, and other miscellaneous alloys. 
384 
MINERALS YEARBOOK, 1977 
Table 2.—Ferroalloys produced and shipped from furnaces in the
United
Statesl 
 Production 
   Alloy 
 Gross element 
 weight  con- 
 (short tamed 
 tons) (average 
  percent) 
Ferromanganese° 
Silicomanganese__________ 
Ferrosilicon3 -__________ 
Chromium alloys: 
Ferrochroinium: 
 High-carbon 167,125 
 Low-carbon — — —  28,140 
 Ferrochroinium-silicon - 54,182 
 Other alloys4 19,800 
 Total 269,247 
Ferrocolumbium 1,205 
Ferrophosphorus 110,903 
Other5 56.485 
Grandtotal          
DOMESTIC PRODUCTION 
 Total production and total shipments of ferroalloys were lower in 1977 than
in the previous year. The gross weight of both production and shipments,
and the value of shipments, all declined 8%. Of the major alloy groups, production
and shipments of the silicon alloys and the chromium alloys each increased
slightly, while those for manganese alloys dropped. Production of ferrochromium
continued to shift from lowcarbon to high-carbon grades. The Ferroalbye Association
reported that its members used 8.27 billion kilowatt-hours of electricity
in 1977, 8% lower than that used in 1976. 
 With lower overall production, several plants were shutdown, at least temporarily.
Ohio Ferro-Alloys Corp. permanently closed its ferrosilicon plant at Brilliant,
Ohio, and temporarily stopped production at Powhatan Point, Ohio. The Brilliant
plant had a reported capacity of 30,000 to 40,000 tons per year of 75% ferrosilicon.
Union Carbide Corp. stopped production of ferromanganese at the Tenn-Tex
Alloy plant in Houston, Tex. The plant had three furnaces with a capacity
of 40,000 tons per year. Union Carbide leased the plant from Sandgate Corp.
until 1980, but found the plant uneco 
nomical in the current market for ferromanganese. The only blast furnace
producing ferromanganese in the United States was closed by Bethlehem Steel
Corp. when its Johnstown, Pa. plant was heavily damaged by a flood. As part
of a plan to reduce steelmaking activity at the plant, it was decided not
to restart ferromanganese production. 
 A new 40-megawatt ferrosilicon furnace was started at the new Bridgeport,
Ala. plant of Tennessee Alloys Co. This new plant was to be operated by the
TAC Alloys division of International Minerals & Chemical Corp. (IMC)
and was owned 75% by IMC and 25% by Allegheny Ludlum Steel Corp. The new
furnace replaced the three small furnaces at the old Bridgeport plant. This
resulted in a 50% increase in capacity to 75,000 tons per year of 50% ferrosilicon.
 Molycorp, Inc., a producer of specialty ferroalloys, merged with and became
a subsidiary of Union Oil Co. of California. Molycorp's holdings of stock
also gave Union Oil an interest in Kawecki-Berylco Industries, Inc., a producer
of silicon metal and ferrocolumbium. 


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