Bureau of Mines / Minerals yearbook: Metals and minerals 1977
Year 1977, Volume 1 (1977)
Lucas, John M.
Cadmium, pp. 207-213 ff. PDF (801.0 KB)
208 MINERALS YEARBOOK, 1977 DOMESTIC PRODUCTION Total domestic production of cadmium metal during 1977 was 2,204 tons, slightly below the 2,256 tons produced in 1976. Metal production was 631 tons in the first quarter, then declined to 428 tons in the third quarter. Production of cadmium during the fourth quarter rebounded to 583 tons following the September settlement of the nearly 5-month labor strike at The Bunker Hill Co. smelter. For every ton of slab zinc produced during the year, an average of 9.8 pounds of cadmium metal was recovered. In 1976, the recovery rate averaged about 7 pounds of metal per ton of zinc compared with 10 pounds in 1975 and 12 pounds in 1974. Prior to 1973, an average of 10 to 12 pounds of cadmium was produced for every ton of slab zinc. This decline in cadmium metal recovery may reflect a growing tendency by producers to make more cadmium compounds at the expense of metal production Table 2.—Primary cadmium producers in the United States in 1977 Company Plant location AMAXZ1ncCo.Inc ASARCOInc Do Sauget,Ill. Corpus Christi, Tex. Denver,Colo. The Bunker Hill Co National Zinc Co New Jersey Zinc Co St. Joe Zinc Co Kellogg, Idaho Bartlesville, Okia. Palmerton, Pa. Monaca, Pa. as well as a combination of possible factors such as a greater percentage recovery of zinc as compared with cadmium and an overall decrease in the cadmium content of the ores and concentrates. Cadmium sulfide production (including cadmium sulfoselenide and lithopone) was 12% below the production level of 1976. Production of other cadmium compounds (cadmium content), which includes both electroplating salts and cadmium oxide, declined about 14% from production levels of the previous year. However compared with 1974, production of other compounds has increased nearly ninefold. Cadmium oxide was produced at two primary-metalproducing plants. Data on cadmium oxide production are not published to avoid disclosing individual company confidential data. Table 3.—Cadmium sulfide1 produced in the United States (Short tons) v ear Quantity (cadmium content) 1973 1,412 1974 1,085 1975 987 1976 804 1977 704 1lncludes cadmium lithopone and cadmium sulfoselenide. CONSUMPTION AND USES The apparent consumption of cadmium was 4,480 tons, 24% less than that of 1976. Over 95% of the consumption of cadmium was accounted for under five principal use categories: Plating, pigments, alloys, batteries, and plastic stabilizers. Electrically or mechanically plated hardware used in transportation vehicles and fixed electrical and mechanical equipment was estimated to have consumed between 40% and 45% of the apparent consumption. Red, orange, yellow, and maroon pigments formulated from cadmium compounds consumed an estimated 15% of the supply. The balance was consumed in nickel-cadmium batteries, special-purpose alloys, and compounds employed to impart heat and light stability to some plastics, particularly polyvinylchloride.
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