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Bureau of Mines / Minerals yearbook: Metals and minerals 1977
Year 1977, Volume 1 (1977)

Lucas, John M.
Cadmium,   pp. 207-213 ff. PDF (801.0 KB)


Page 208

208 
MINERALS YEARBOOK, 1977 
DOMESTIC PRODUCTION 
 Total domestic production of cadmium metal during 1977 was 2,204 tons, slightly
below the 2,256 tons produced in 1976. Metal production was 631 tons in the
first quarter, then declined to 428 tons in the third quarter. Production
of cadmium during the fourth quarter rebounded to 583 tons following the
September settlement of the nearly 5-month labor strike at The Bunker Hill
Co. smelter. 
 For every ton of slab zinc produced during the year, an average of 9.8 pounds
of cadmium metal was recovered. In 1976, the recovery rate averaged about
7 pounds of metal per ton of zinc compared with 10 pounds in 1975 and 12
pounds in 1974. Prior to 1973, an average of 10 to 12 pounds of cadmium was
produced for every ton of slab zinc. This decline in cadmium metal recovery
may reflect a growing tendency by producers to make more cadmium compounds
at the expense of metal production 
Table 2.—Primary cadmium producers in 
the United States in 1977 
Company 
Plant location 
AMAXZ1ncCo.Inc         
ASARCOInc            Do                  
Sauget,Ill. 
Corpus Christi, Tex. 
Denver,Colo. 
The Bunker Hill Co         
National Zinc Co          
New Jersey Zinc Co        
St. Joe Zinc Co            
Kellogg, Idaho 
Bartlesville, Okia. 
Palmerton, Pa. 
Monaca, Pa. 
as well as a combination of possible factors such as a greater percentage
recovery of zinc as compared with cadmium and an overall decrease in the
cadmium content of the ores and concentrates. 
 Cadmium sulfide production (including cadmium sulfoselenide and lithopone)
was 12% below the production level of 1976. 
 Production of other cadmium compounds (cadmium content), which includes
both electroplating salts and cadmium oxide, declined about 14% from production
levels of the previous year. However compared with 1974, production of other
compounds has increased nearly ninefold. Cadmium oxide was produced at two
primary-metalproducing plants. Data on cadmium oxide production are not published
to avoid disclosing individual company confidential data. 
Table 3.—Cadmium sulfide1 produced in 
the United States 
(Short tons) 
v 
ear 
 Quantity (cadmium content) 
 1973 1,412 1974 1,085 1975 987 
1976                       
804 
 1977 704 
 1lncludes cadmium lithopone and cadmium sulfoselenide. 
CONSUMPTION AND USES 
 The apparent consumption of cadmium was 4,480 tons, 24% less than that of
1976. Over 95% of the consumption of cadmium was accounted for under five
principal use categories: Plating, pigments, alloys, batteries, and plastic
stabilizers. Electrically or mechanically plated hardware used in transportation
vehicles and fixed electrical and mechanical equipment was estimated to have
consumed between 40% and 45% of 
the apparent consumption. Red, orange, yellow, and maroon pigments formulated
from cadmium compounds consumed an estimated 15% of the supply. The balance
was consumed in nickel-cadmium batteries, special-purpose alloys, and compounds
employed to impart heat and light stability to some plastics, particularly
polyvinylchloride. 


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